Show all authors. Abstract: Uses two case studies to examine how changing market structures in food supply chains have affected the nature of collaboration . Distributors buy directly from wholesale manufacturers, then market those products through a network of retailers. Distributors handle the. Relationships between retailers and suppliers are generally less competition among retailers and among suppliers of national branded pro-.
The company noticed, for example, that new parents often shopped for baby products at Boots, a large pharmacy chain, and that they were willing to pay premium prices because they received helpful advice.
In the first two years, Tesco grew its share of the U. Though Tesco is strong in many areas — for example, the company also has a high level of private-label sales — its ability to understand and target individual consumers is so well recognized that it now sells its loyalty know-how to other retailers through its dunnhumby subsidiary. Some treat loyalty programs as a discount-delivery vehicle rather than as a means of building relationships.
Despite the current hype about big data, in industries such as retail where such data have been available for a number of years, loyalty programs have had an unremarkable record. The average consumer belongs to Marketers were even unhappier: Many manufacturers have experience that can help retailers use information more effectively. For instance, although retailers have access to scanner data that tells them what products consumers buy, their perspective is often limited to the activity in their own stores.
Suppliers see a much bigger picture, since they usually sell to other retailers. Thanks to this perspective, they can demonstrate — with data — the effectiveness of new practices that retailers might otherwise not consider.
These practices can be profitable for both the retailer and the manufacturer. Even within their own stores, retailers tend to know little about consumer behavior before the consumer checks out. Vendors act as category captains in many instances, advising grocers on shelf space placement and inventory tracking. For example, Kraft Foods works with retailers on long-term studies of product organization within the dairy case, sometimes resulting in double-digit sales gains for the retailer.
It also establishes cooperative funding programs to develop joint merchandising initiatives that have proven successful elsewhere. For example, Coca-Cola used its My Coke Rewards program in to build consumer connections while simultaneously offering bonus points to Safeway.
To provide value to retailers like Loblaw, manufacturers must find ways to innovate both at the product level and at the category level. For premium brands, however, maintaining innovation and product quality is essential. Campbell Soup, for example, has introduced portable microwavable soup packaging to appeal to people on the go.
Such innovation by leading brands is beneficial to participants across the product category. For grocers with well-established private label programs, too much private-label activity can be harmful; national brands drive traffic, and when store-brand penetration gets too high, consumers may begin to defect. In addition to the obvious volume and capacity utilization gained from producing private labels, there are more subtle benefits, such as acquiring a better understanding of the category and obtaining leverage over private labels.
Vendors that manufacture private labels can encourage the retailer to position the private label to compete with other national brands and differentiate their own products with distinctive packaging, product sizes and quantities. Many manufacturers worry that their branded-goods business will be overwhelmed by private labels if they produce their own private-label entry.
But strategies for protecting core brands have been evolving. Heinz, for instance, produces private-label products in a number of categories where it also sells national brands, with the exception of ketchup. Depending on the circumstances, they can appeal to consumers in different ways and can be promoted at different times. Cobranding opportunities Retailers are beginning to offer cobranded products, in which national brands are an element in a store-brand product.
With cobranding, the retailer benefits by bolstering its claims to uniqueness or quality; the national brand gets to promote its brand. Retailers focusing on private labels are also attempting to broaden their offerings into largely uncharted territory, including ethnic foods, nutritional supplements, organics and environmentally friendly items. Here, manufacturers with extensive category knowledge can make real contributions.
They can often draw upon experience gained from across the globe, allowing retailers to be more regionally focused. For manufacturers, some of the most promising opportunities may come from no-frills retailers such as Aldi, Dollar General and Family Dollar, which are focused on private labels but seek to drive traffic with branded goods.
For example, Aldi, based in Germany but with more than 1, stores in the United States, has found that it must carry branded goods such as Colgate toothpaste and Ferrero chocolates to satisfy shoppers. Second, the price of national brands at the discount store needs to be lower than at mainstream retailers.
And third, because discounters frequently offer products in large quantities, manufacturers should invest in packaging and case designs. All retailers focus on the efficient use of working capital, but for successful players like Costco, it is a pillar of their strategy. Manufacturers have an opportunity to design programs to meet the working capital needs of retailers and to focus these programs on those retailers most concerned with working capital efficiency.
Manufacturers should look for two simple clues.
First, does the retailer have a working capital gap — does it sell goods faster than it pays for them? And second, is this gap the result of efficient operations or delayed payments to suppliers? A negative working capital gap can be a significant competitive advantage. Our analysis suggests that while negative working capital gaps are common, their size varies across retailers. The ideal situation for a retailer is to have a negative gap — to sell products faster than they are paid for.
At first glance, the discrepancies in working capital efficiency appear small and suggest that Loblaw is more efficient than Costco. But because its operations require less operating cash and because it gets working capital from membership feesCostco pays its suppliers more than 20 days faster than Loblaw.
Used with permission of ThomsonONE i. The method of analysis is adapted from J. Harvard Business Review Press, Faster selling cycles At first glance, the discrepancies in working capital efficiency appear small, and they even suggest that Loblaw is more efficient than Costco.
Loblaw has a gap of — However, significant differences emerge when the different components are considered individually.
Supplier Relationships - How Do They Impact Retail? - Connor Gillivan
First, Costco collects receivables twice as fast as Loblaw; its receivables are outstanding for 4. Second, Costco turns its inventory faster than Loblaw. Although mattresses typically take much longer to sell than milk, Costco manages to push its stock out the door quickly. Costco requires nearly one week less of working capital to operate than Loblaw does. Also note how quickly Costco pays suppliers.
Because its operations require less operating cash and because it gets working capital from membership feesCostco pays its suppliers more than 20 days faster than Loblaw does. Payment flexibility Retailers that manage working capital well carry merchandise that sells quickly. For example, Costco stores typically carry fewer than 4, stock keeping units, or unique products, a small fraction of what most supermarkets and hypermarkets carry.
Manufacturers are well-positioned to provide retailers with market intelligence, sales guidance and buyback programs. A minimum purchase quantity is a minimum dollar amount worth of goods that the distributor or retailer must purchase in order to carry their products. Minimum purchase quantities are common for large brands that have a strong foothold in the consumer market. A great example is Fisher Price. After selling the products to the distributor or retailer, the manufacturer is finished with the supplier chain.
They continue to design and produce goods then sell them off to the wholesalers. The Distributor The distributor is the middle man between the manufacturer and the retailer.
Collaboration Becomes Key To Success For Retailers And Suppliers - Retail TouchPoints
The distributor also purchases products directly from the manufacturer, but they do not sell directly to the end consumer. Rather, the distributor buys the products in bulk at heavy discounts, stores them in their warehouses, and then sells them directly to the retailer. The distributor makes money on the difference between the wholesale cost that they pay the manufacturer and the cost that they sell the product to the retailer.
Distributors exist for both the benefit of manufacturers and retailers. If a manufacturer does not have the proper facilities to store and manage their inventory, they will work with a distributor that can handle the storage in their warehouse. The distributor also has stronger relationships with retailers so it offers the manufacturer a salesperson to push their product out to the public. For retailers, distributors can offer a more organized one-stop-shop for products for their store.
Distributors will carry hundreds of brands so it makes it simple for retailers to make large orders for their stores depending on the retail season. Granted they may not be getting the best pricing, it eliminates the headaches of working directly with over manufacturers, all with different operations systems and processes. The Hybrid…Manufacturer and Retailer As I was referring to earlier, some manufacturers also operate as retailers selling their products to both retailers and the end consumer.
Nike is a prime example. Nike designs and manufacturers its own goods storing them in their own warehouses. Nike will sell their goods to big box retailers like Dicks Sporting Goods, Sports Authority, and other sporting goods stores. However, they also own their own retail stores and online store where they sell directly to the consumer. By handling both the manufacturing and retailing, Nike is able to take tighter control of their profit margins. Because of their strong brand, they can negotiate better deals with the big box retailers.
When selling directly to the consumer on their own website, they are able to keep the full margin between what they produce the product for and what they are selling it for. Talk about the ideal gross profit! Being a hybrid manufacturer and retailer is becoming evermore popular given the ease of creating a store and marketing plan on the Internet. Selling online requires little to no overhead and provides you with the opportunity of reaching customers all across the country.
Before the Internet was around, retailers were dependent upon their physical locations. As a manufacturer, it was much more difficult to handle both the production of your goods and a physical store.
The overhead costs were too heavy and the logistics could be a nightmare. The Reality of Retail to Us The retail industry is built off of markups and supplier relationships. When you purchase a product from any retail store, it is going through tiers of mark ups before it reaches you as the end consumer.
The industry has been the same way for hundreds of years and shoppers have come to simply accept the prices that we are paying for products.
Sony is a manufacturer of electronic consumer goods.