Society and the Media | dayline.info
The paper examines the relationship between mass media and transmit government policies and a policy being pursued by government. Changing Mass Media Characteristics Faster Cheaper Easier (user friendly) to explain the relationship between media and society A mental construct, Oppression and censorship News media Criticism of Government Resistanc. Mass media is communication—whether written, broadcast, or spoken—that reaches a large Culture and Society Defined · Culture's Roots: Biological or Societal? . did not rate well among young city dwellers that advertisers were targeting in ads. as playing an active rather than passive role in relation to mass media.
Advocates of this view concern themselves particularly with massive corporate mergers of media organizations, which limit competition and put big business at the reins of media—especially news media. Their concern is that when ownership is restricted, a few people then have the ability to manipulate what people can see or hear.
The Relationship between the Government and the Media | Richard Imhoagene - dayline.info
For example, owners can easily avoid or silence stories that expose unethical corporate behavior or hold corporations responsible for their actions.
The issue of sponsorship adds to this problem. Advertising dollars fund most media. Networks aim programming at the largest possible audience because the broader the appeal, the greater the potential purchasing audience and the easier selling air time to advertisers becomes. Thus, news organizations may shy away from negative stories about corporations especially parent corporations that finance large advertising campaigns in their newspaper or on their stations.
Media watchers identify the same problem at the local level where city newspapers will not give new cars poor reviews or run stories on selling a home without an agent because the majority of their funding comes from auto and real estate advertising. This influence also extends to programming. Critics of this theory counter these arguments by saying that local control of news media largely lies beyond the reach of large corporate offices elsewhere, and that the quality of news depends upon good journalists.
They contend that those less powerful and not in control of media have often received full media coverage and subsequent support. Predominantly conservative political issues have yet to gain prominent media attention, or have been opposed by the media. Advocates of this view point to the Strategic Arms Initiative of the s Reagan administration.
This submission I argued, cannot hold if every person is investigating and probing into one another as a reporter, without a law by legislators to protect the people, and the existence of the judiciary to adjudicate over disputes and the executive arm to check excesses and unethical practices.How Mass Media Influences our Society
Such a society, I pointed out can only exist in a jungle, where there are no rules of law but animalistic interpersonal relationship. There is no problem with any government. Antics of some characters in government create the negative perceptions about public institutions.
Influence of mass media
Added to the unbecoming and petty behaviours of some officials in government is the reality that public information management is very weak largely due to unskilled manpower, ill-equipped departments and political interference where a seeming straightforward and truthful information is deliberately distorted for egocentric ambitions of principals. In fact the Freedom of Information Act FOI could not have been a necessity if the public information officers have been allowed to discharge their roles responsibly and professionally.
A study and adherence to basic principles of Public Relations could be a clear guide for spokespersons rather than the fire brigade approach and combatant posture of such image managers to simple issue management. Conclusion The reality of the relationship between the Media and Government is that both serve to monitor and check the excesses of the other. Jos University Press Sambe, J.
Shuaib Debating Government-Media Relationship.
The Office of War Information OWItherefore, set out to change public opinion about the wisdom of entering the war and to educate military people about their fellow soldiers and sailors. Speeches, lectures, and pamphlets failed. The OWI then turned to filmmakers such as Frank Capra and radio personalities such as Kate Smith for their audience appeal and looked to social scientists to measure the effectiveness of these new media campaigns.
Army established the Experimental Section inside its Information and Education Division, staffing it with psychologists who were expert in issues of attitude change.
Led by Carl Hovland, this group of researchers tested the effectiveness of the government's media campaigns. Continuing its work at Yale University after the war, it produced some of the most influential communication research of the twentieth century, which led to the development of attitude change theory, explaining how people's attitudes are formed, shaped, and changed through communication, and how those attitudes influence behavior.
Among the most important attitude change theories are the related ideas of dissonance and selective processes. Dissonance theory argues that, when confronted by new information, people experience a mental discomfort, a dissonance. As a result, they consciously and subconsciously work to limit or reduce that discomfort through three interrelated processes that help them "select" what information they consume, remember, and interpret in personally important and idiosyncratic ways.
Selective exposure is the process by which people expose themselves to or attend to only those messages that are consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs. Selective retention assumes that people remember best and longest those messages that are consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs. Selective perception predicts that people will interpret messages in a manner consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs.
Because limited effects theory was the dominant paradigm at the time of the development of dissonance theory, the selective processes were seen as limiting the effect of the media because content is selectively filtered to produce as little attitude change as possible.
More important, however, the selective processes formed the core of the influential book The Effects of Mass Communication In it, Joseph Klapper, an eminent scientist and the head of social research for CBS broadcasting, articulated firmly and clearly the core of the limited effects paradigm: Mass communication ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effects, but rather functions among and through a nexus a web of mediating factors and influences.
These mediating factors are such that they typically render mass communication as a contributory agent, but not the sole cause, in the process of reinforcing existing conditions [p.
Klapper's theory, based on social science evidence developed prior tois often called reinforcement theory. It was very persuasive at a time when the nation's social fabric had yet to feel the full effect of the change brought about by the war.
In addition, the public, flush with enthusiasm and optimism for the technology and science that had helped the United States defeat the Axis powers, could see little but good coming from the media technologies, and they trusted the work of Klapper and other scientists. If the media had little effect other than reinforcement on individuals, they could have little effect on society as a whole.
The Paradigm Begins to Shift In retrospect, the value of reinforcement theory may have passed with its publication date. With rapid postwar urbanization, industrialization, and the entry of women into the work-place, Klapper's "nexus of mediating factors and influences"—church, family, and school—began to lose its traditional socializing role for many people.
SOCIETY AND THE MEDIA
During the s, a decade of profound social and cultural change, it became increasingly difficult to ignore the effect of the media. Most important, however, the research that Klapper studied in preparation for his book had been conducted beforethe year in which it is generally accepted that television became a mass medium.
Almost none of the science that he examined in developing his reinforcement theory examined television. During the era of limited effects, a number of important ideas were developed that began to question the assumption of limited media influence on people and cultures.
They are still respected and examined. Among the most influential is agenda setting, a theory that argues that the media may not tell people what to think, but through specific journalistic practices, they tell people what to think about. The agenda-setting power of the media resides not only in factors such as the amount of space or time devoted to a story and its placement in the broadcast or on the page.
Also lending strength to the agenda-setting power of the media is the fact that there is great consistency between media sources across all media in the choice and type of coverage they give an issue or event. This consistency and repetition signal to people the importance of an issue or event. In their book Theories of Mass Communication, Melvin DeFleur and Sandra Ball-Rokeach offered another view of potentially powerful mass media, tying that power to the dependency of audience members on the media and their content.
This media systems dependency theory is composed of several assertions: The basis of the influence of the media resides in the "relationship between the larger social system, the media's role in that system, and audience relationships to the media. People's level of dependency is related to a "the number and centrality importance of the specific information-delivery functions served by a medium" and b the degree of change and conflict present in society.
It is clear that limited effects theory is being left behind here. Dependency theory argues that, especially in a complex and changing society, people become increasingly dependent on the media and media content to understand what is going on around them, to learn how to behave meaningfully, and to escape.
Influence of mass media - Wikipedia
At the same time that some media researchers were challenging the limited effects paradigm with ideas such as agenda setting and dependency theory, psychologists were expanding on their social cognitive theory—the idea that people learn through observation—and applying it to mass media, especially television. Social cognitive theory argues that people model copy the behaviors they see and that modeling happens in two ways.
The first is imitation, the direct replication of an observed behavior. For example, a child might see a cartoon cat hit a cartoon mouse with a stick and then hit his sister with a stick. The second form of modeling is identification, a special form of imitation in which observers do not copy exactly what they see but make a more generalized, still-related response. For example, the child might still be aggressive to his sister, but dump water on her head rather than hit her.
The idea of identification was of particular value to mass communication theorists. Obviously, people can imitate what they see on television, but not all do. When imitation does occur in dramatic instances—for example, when someone hijacks a plane after seeing it done on television— it is so outrageous that it is considered an aberration.
Identification however, although harder to see and study, is the more likely way that television influences behavior.
Return to Macroscopic Theory Some of the obvious and observable effects that television has on society include increased sophistication of the media industries and media consumers, entrenched social problems such as racial strife, the apparent cheapening of the political process, and the emergence of calls for controls on new technologies such as cable, satellites, and computer networks.
These are only a few of the many factors that forced mass communication theorists to rethink the influence of media—and to attempt once again to understand the media-society relationship in macroscopic terms. The theories that have gained the most support among media researchers and theorists are those that accept the potential for powerful media effects, a potential that is either enhanced or thwarted by the involvement of audience members in the mass communication process.
One such theory is symbolic interaction. This is the idea that the meaning of symbols is learned through interaction and then mediates that interaction. In other words, people give things meaning, and that meaning controls their behavior. The American flag is an example. Americans have decided that an array of red, white, and blue cloth, assembled in a particular way, represents not only the nation but its values and beliefs.
The flag has meaning because Americans have given it meaning, and now that meaning governs certain behavior. For example, Americans are not free to remain seated when a color guard carries the flag into a room.
Symbolic interaction is frequently used when studying the influence of advertising, because advertisers often succeed by encouraging consumers to perceive products as symbols that have meaning beyond their actual function.