Lemma” is the term used in some branches of linguistics to denote the basic citation form of a word for the purposes of dictionary entries. A lexeme can be smaller than a word (for example, the suffix -gate) or bigger than a. Semantical relations between words are manifested in respect of homonymy, . A lemma in morphology is the canonical form of a lexeme. The Latin equivalent to Greek lemma is vox 'expression, word'. the relation of a text-word to a dictionary lemma is not a type-token relation; it is lemmatize that word list: each word form must be assigned to a lexeme (and, thus, to a lemma).
This notion of lemma is similar to the Sanskrit sphota 6th c. The relationship between an inflected form and its lemma is usually denoted by an angle bracket, e.
Lemma (morphology) - Wikipedia
The disadvantage of such simplifications is, of course, the inability to look up a declined or conjugated form of the word, although some dictionaries, like Webster's, will list "went". Multilingual dictionaries vary in how they deal with this issue: Lemmas or word stems are used often in corpus linguistics for determining word frequency. In such usage the specific definition of "lemma" is flexible depending on the task it is being used for.
Lemmas in different languages In English, the citation form of a noun is the singular: If the language additionally has cases, the citation form is often the masculine singular nominative. In many languages, the citation form of a verb is the infinitive: For contracted verbs in Greek, an uncontracted first person singular present tense is used to reveal the contract vowel, e.
In Arabic, which has no infinitives, the third person singular masculine of the past tense is the least-marked form, and is used for entries in modern dictionaries. In older dictionaries, which are still commonly used today, the triliteral of the word, either a verb or a noun, is used.
Hebrew often uses the 3rd person masculine qal perfect, e.
For Korean, -da is attached to the stem. Some phrases are cited in a sort of lemma, e. For example, given the word "produced", its lemma is "produce", however the stem is "produc. For instance "to go" the lemma has the stems "go" and "wen-".
linguistics - What exactly is a lexeme? - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
The "-t" of "went" may be considered as being derived from the past tense "-ed". For Korean-da is attached to the stem. In Irishwords are highly inflected depending on their case genitive, nominative, dative and vocative ; they are also inflected on their place within a sentence because of initial mutations.
The noun cainteoir, the lemma for the noun meaning "speaker", has a variety of forms: Some phrases are cited in a sort of lemma, e.
Lexicography[ edit ] In a dictionary, the lemma "go" represents the inflected forms "go", "goes", "going", "went", and "gone". The relationship between an inflected form and its lemma is usually denoted by an angle bracket, e.
The disadvantage of such simplifications is, of course, the inability to look up a declined or conjugated form of the word, although some dictionaries, like Webster'swill list "went".
Multilingual dictionaries vary in how they deal with this issue: Lemmas or word stems are used often in corpus linguistics for determining word frequency. In such usage the specific definition of "lemma" is flexible depending on the task it is being used for.
Pronunciation[ edit ] A word may have different pronunciations depending on its phonetic environment neighbouring sounds or its degree of stress within a sentence. Dictionaries usually give the pronunciation used when the word is pronounced alone in its isolation form and with stress, although they may also note commonly occurring weak forms of pronunciation. Difference between stem and lemma[ edit ] The stem is the part of the word that never changes even when morphologically inflected; a lemma is the base form of the word.
For example, from "produced", the lemma is "produce", but the stem is "produc-". This is because there are words such as production. When phonology is taken into account, the definition of the unchangeable part of the word is not useful, as can be seen in the phonological forms of the words in the preceding example: