Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, Other fields of psychology focus on how personal relationships impact Cross-culture psychologists have used the emic/etic distinction for some time. . While there are strong associations between cultural average income and. This Online Readings in Psychology and Culture Article is brought to you for relationship with cultural psychology to make its instruments ecologically and However they do not describe this with the detail that the following. The search for relationships between cultural context and human behavior is First, culture-comparative psychology carries out studies of.
Specifically, they emphasize the necessity of the counselor's having multicultural competence and the ability to apply this knowledge when working with persons of varying ethnic backgrounds.
In response to this questions, cross-cultural psychologists have often questioned how to compare traits across cultures.As Psychology - Culture
To examine this question, lexical studies measuring personality factors using trait adjectives from various languages have been conducted. Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether these traits are nonexistent in certain cultures or whether different sets of adjectives must be used to measure them.
Psychology and such Cross-cultural Psychology
However, many researches believe that the FFM is a universal structure and can be used within cross-cultural research and research studies in general. However, other cultures may include even more significant traits that go beyond those traits included in the FFM.
In the field of cross-cultural psychology, Paul Ekman has conducted research examining judgments in facial expression cross-culturally. One of his studies included participants from ten different cultures who were required to indicate emotions and the intensity of each emotion based upon picture of persons expressing various emotions.
The results of the study showed that there was agreement across cultures as to which emotions were the most and second most intense. Nevertheless, it is also important to note that in the study there were differences in the way in which participants across cultures rated emotion intensity. They found that the Chinese participants were not as skilled as the American participants at perceiving the universal emotional expressions of people coming from a culture different than their own.
Also, because every culture has different values and norms, it is important to analyze those differences in order to gain a better understanding as to why certain emotions are either interpreted differently or not at all. For example, as Huang et al. This important information may be critical in recognizing the cross-cultural difference between Asian and American judgments of the universal emotional expressions.
For example, Brazilians have been shown in studies to find positive emotions very desirable whereas the Chinese did not score as highly on the desire for positive emotions. It is difficult to identify a universal indicator as to how much subjective well-being individuals in different societies experience over a period of time.
Diener, Diener, and Diener,noted that individualist cultural members are found to be happier than collectivist cultural members. One factor that may contribute to this debate is that nations that are economically stable may also contain various non-materialistic features such as a more stable democratic government, better enforcement of human rights, etc.
Therefore, it has yet to be determined whether a higher level of subjective well-being is linked to material affluence or whether it is shaped by other features that wealthy societies often possess and that may serve as intermediate links between affluence and well-being.
Cross-Cultural Psychology - Psychology - Oxford Bibliographies
Specifically, the paper examines aging-related differences in wise reasoning among the American and Japanese cultures. Participants' responses revealed that wisdom e. Furthermore, younger and middle-aged Japanese participants illustrated higher scores than Americans for resolving group conflicts. The Japanese are motivated to maintain interpersonal harmony and avoid conflict, resolve conflict better, and are wiser earlier in their lives.
Americans experience conflict gradually, which results in continuous learning about how to solve conflict and increased wisdom in their later years. The current study supported the concept that varying cultures use different methods to resolve conflict. These differences can be found when a third party becomes involved and provides a solution to the conflict.
A technique used by Korean-Americans may reflect Confucian values  while the American technique will be consistent with their individualistic and capitalistic views. They are listed to illustrate both the historical roots and the subsequent evolution of the field. A fourth perspective is intercultural psychology. This field examines how individuals who develop in one culture reestablish their lives in another culture and how relate to each other across cultural boundaries.
This approach is portrayed in the Oxford Bibliographies article Intercultural Psychology. Culture-Comparative Psychology Since the s, a number of textbooks, handbooks, and readers have been published that seek to provide an overall portrayal of culture-behavior relationships using the comparative method.
Many of these volumes incorporate some features of the cultural psychology and indigenous psychology perspectives.
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