Exploring Muslim identity in Australia and Indonesia - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
An Australian and Indonesian exchange program is breaking down stereotypes and educating both nations on the diversity of Muslim identity. Islam in Australia is a minority religious affiliation. According to the Australian Census, the . Trade and educational links have been developed between Australia and several In August the National Imams Council issued a statement opposing the proposed introduction of same-sex marriage in Australia, and. If it is true that relations between Australia and Indonesia are defined by For most of the history of bilateral relations, Islam has, somewhat strangely, Moreover, Australian politicians and diplomats were inclined to pass summary, Singapore's leadership one step ahead by Michael Barr · The year.
An Australian trade commissioner was briefly stationed in China in In the mids, conflict between China and Britain surrounding the Canton—Hong Kong strike created tensions between China and Australia as a dominion of Britain as well.
Islam in Australia
Following the Northern Expedition in China, greater political unity within China bolstered the Chinese Consulate-General's confidence in criticising Australian laws that discriminated against the Chinese; they were supported domestically by a resolution at the ruling Kuomintang's Third National Conference in Australian rules against Chinese residents and visitors were relaxed in response, including making it easier for Chinese nationals to visit or study in Australia.
The Consulate-General was reorganised and moved to Sydney, with sub-consulates opened in other key cities. Various Chinese officials visited Australia. As a mark of respect, he was given a seat on the floor of the House of Representatives. Frederic Egglestonwho previously headed the Commonwealth Grants Commissionwas appointed the first minister to China in ChongqingChina's war-time capital, while Hsu Modeputy foreign minister, was appointed the first minister to Australia.
The United Kingdom proposed in that Britain, Australia and New Zealand should simultaneously recognise the new government.
However, the Australian and New Zealand governments were concerned about electoral repercussions at a time when Communism was becoming a more topical issues, and did not do so immediately. Although Ben Chifley 's Labor government preferred to be realistic about the new Chinese government and would have supported its admission to the United Nations,  it lost the election.
The British government went ahead with the recognition of the PRC alone inbut the United States withheld recognition. However, fromAustralia refused to accept ambassadors from the ROC,[ citation needed ] and for many years Australia did not send an ambassador to Taiwan.
Islam's 'Dalai Lama' urges Australia to speak out against China's police state
From as early asthe Australian government's Department of External Affairs was recommending the recognition of the PRC, but this advice was not politically accepted. While the Labor Party 's official policy from was that Australia should follow the examples of Britain and France in recognising the PRC, on the basis that the ROC was unlikely to recover the mainland,  the Liberal Party-led Coalition played up the perceived threat of a Communist China for electoral advantage, including the support of the anti-Communist Democratic Labor Party.
As part of this political strategy, Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt explicitly recognised the continuing legitimacy of the ROC government in Taiwan inby sending an ambassador to Taipei for the first time.
As opposition leader, Gough Whitlam visited China in before Henry Kissinger 's historic visit on behalf of the United Statesand in Decemberafter Whitlam's victory in that year's federal election, Australia established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and Australia ceased to recognise the Republic of China government of Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan. The establishment of relations with "Red China" roused great excitement in Australia. Since the Chinese economic reforms initiated by the late Deng XiaopingChina has benefited from significant investment in China by Australian companies for example, future Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull had set up the first Sino-foreign joint venture mining company in China inwhile Australia has benefited from the Chinese appetite for natural resources to modernise its economy, infrastructure and meet its growing energy demands.
This allowed for the acceptance of a number of displaced white European Muslims who began to arrive from other parts of Europe, mainly from the Balkansespecially from Bosnia and Herzegovina. As with the Albanian Muslim immigrants before them, the European heritage of these dispaced Muslims also made them compatible with the White Australia Policy.
Later, between andduring the final years of the step-by-step dismantling of the White Australia policy, approximately 10, Turkish citizens settled in Australia under an agreement between Australia and Turkey. From the s onwards, there was a significant shift in the government's attitude towards immigration, and with the White Australia policy now totally dismantled from onwards, instead of trying to make newer foreign nationals assimilate and forgo their heritage, the government became more accommodating and tolerant of differences by adopting a policy of multiculturalism.
By the beginning of the 21st-century, Muslims from more than sixty countries had settled in Australia. Muslim students from countries such as MalaysiaIndonesiaIndiaBangladesh and Pakistanare among the thousands of international students studying in Australian universities.
Islam in Australia - Wikipedia
Newspapers received numerous letters calling for Arab Australians to "prove their loyalty" or "go home", and some Arab Australian Muslim women wearing hijab head coverings were reportedly harassed in public. The Australian government's Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission included accounts of racial harassment experienced by some Australian Arabs in their report on racism in Australia.
The Sydney gang rapes formed a much reported set of incidents in ; a group of Lebanese men sexually assaulted non-Muslim women.
Intensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the Cronulla area of Sydney led to violent rioting ; the incident resulted in mass arrests and criminal prosecution. InMuslims protesting in central Sydney against Innocence of Muslimsan anti-Islam film trailer, resulted in rioting.
Keysar Trad has said moderate Muslims need to take back control.
Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Lu Kang said the "ulterior motives" of anti-China forces were behind the "unfounded" slandering of anti-terrorism measures, Gay McDougall, the committee vice-chairwoman who raised the detentions last week, said she wasn't convinced by China's "flat denial" of the detention figures.
She said China "didn't quite deny" that re-education programs are taking place. Well, how many were there? Please tell me," she said. But delegation leader Yu Jianhua said some panel members had treated "some of the unsubstantiated materials as credible information. Hundreds of people have been killed in violence in Xinjiang in recent years, prompting the tough security measures by the authorities.
Rights groups and Uighur exiles say the violence stems more from Uighur frustration over Chinese controls on culture and religion, than from an organised campaign by militant groups. China officially guarantees freedom of religion, but in recent years officials nervous about the possibility of radicalisation and violence have tightened controls in heavily Muslim areas. China's policy of "sinification" of religion has increasingly alarmed many in other Muslim groups, who fear the government is widening strict curbs in Xinjiang to additional Muslim areas, such as the region of Ningxia and Gansu province.