Keywords Bidirectional, parent–child relationships, psychopathology, systematic .. Interplay of genes and early mother–child relationship in the development of. parent–child relationships from early childhood (about 3–4 years of age) through middle parent–child relationships as bidirectional and co-constructed. To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent–child discord and The impact of remission on parent–child conflict, and the differential impact of.
Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed. What started with an appreciation for how characteristics or behaviors of the child can evoke different parental responses has grown more complex in recent years. The importance of understanding the process and mechanisms of treatment effects e.
The goal of the current study was to identify and describe 3-year longitudinal continuity and potential transactional relations between child behavior and parenting practice, in the context of a treatment study designed to improve parenting behavior and reduce child externalizing behavior problems. Bidirectional Parent-Child Effects in Developmental Studies Several studies from the developmental literature focused on bidirectional effects with the advent of sophisticated statistical modeling techniques for longitudinal data.
Specifically, they found stronger influences from child disruptive behaviors i. In another recent study that examined reciprocal effects between parent disciplinary practices and child behavior problems, Lansford and colleagues reported consistent parent-to-child effects of physical discipline on increasing child antisocial behavior in annual assessments across two samples of different ages i.
However, their findings were less consistent across the two samples regarding child-to-parent effects, with only the middle childhood sample evidencing significant effects of child antisocial behavior on increasing parental physical discipline. Yates and colleagues have also investigated bidirectional relations between child adjustment and indicators of positive parenting quality e. In another study of parents and male children, no effects of parenting behaviors i.
In contrast, child externalizing behaviors did predict a worsening of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline over time. Taken together, these developmental studies provide a mixed picture and indications that child age and the relative stability of parent and child behavior at different developmental periods should be taken into account.
To this end, and consistent with the behavioral theories explicated above, change in child behavior is thought to be mediated by change in parenting. Cascading effects of a preventive parenting intervention have also been noted in outcomes from the New Beginnings program for divorced families, including improvements in effective parental discipline leading to improvements in child externalizing behavior over time McLain et al.
These mediation models have moved the literature forward in many ways, but also present some major limitations to the study of bidirectional effects between parents and children in the study of DBD treatment. First, these models generally are unidirectional in nature, considering the influence of treatment on parents, and subsequently on children. While developmental research has more recently illustrated the nature of these bidirectional effects over time, as noted above e.
Indeed, the nature of bidirectional effects between parent and child behavior may be different in a clinical context as compared to a general developmental context: Therefore, it might be reasonable to expect attenuated child-to-parent effects in the context of a longitudinal treatment study as compared to a non-clinical study of development.
Second, the time points of the assessments are concurrent in many of the treatment outcome studies, where changes in both parent and child outcomes are only measured at post-treatment but see McLain et al. Patterson, DeGarmo, and Forgatch have utilized longitudinal data collected every 6 months across 30 months following a behavioral parenting intervention to examine cross-lagged relations among parenting practices, maternal depression and child behavior problems in middle childhood.
This research approach enables the investigation of family systemic effects of parenting interventions. In this study by Patterson and colleagues, a significant cross-lag effect was detected such that improvements in maternal depression predicted later improvements in effective parenting practices e.
Third, less research has examined how behavior change occurs and may be reciprocal across parents and children in interventions that target both parent and child behavior.
While studies such as those outlined above e. As noted by Burke et al. However, the majority of clinical studies that have examined bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior following intervention have focused on treatments that are primarily parent-directed e.
Thus, the nature of bidirectional relations in the context of multi-modal treatments for disruptive behavior disorders remains understudied. Finally, many of the extant studies of bidirectional effects have been subject to the possible effects of reporter bias, due to reliance on a single reporter, such as mother report, for both parent and child behavior or functioning e.
For example, numerous studies have shown child-to-parent longitudinal relations between behavior problems among adolescents and subsequent decrements in parenting e.
Exceptions have been presented in the developmental literature, with research on transactional parent-child effects that also incorporates multiple reporters e. Expanding Treatment Targets Beyond Parents: Implications for Parent-Child Relations and Treatment Outcome Measurement Although there are numerous examples of treatments for disruptive behavior that are primarily parent-directed e.
While the processes of treatment effects are well articulated for parent-directed interventions that address child disruptive behavior, as outlined in the preceding section, this is not the case for other types of interventions. For interventions with child disruptive behavior disorders that target both parents and children as the recipients of treatment, there is a need to understand the inter-related and potentially complex effects of the treatment on two or more related individuals.
Current Study The current study examined longitudinal and bidirectional effects over a 3-year period, between child externalizing behavior and negative parenting practices in the context of a psychosocial treatment designed to improve parenting as well as reduce child externalizing behavior problems. The study sample includes families child participants ranged in age from 6—11 and were predominantly male who participated in a modular treatment protocol developed for early-onset ODD or CD, which was delivered in either the research clinic or community settings.
Previous research has demonstrated that this intervention is associated with post-treatment improvements in child behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms Kolko et al. Method Participants Participants were caregiver-child dyads who were referred due to concerns of child behavior problems.
The sample was recruited from an urban environment in the mid-Atlantic region. Caregivers identified their children as: Although more than one caregiving adult could participate in treatment, only one was identified as the respondent for all caregiver measures. Shamseddeen is with the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor.
Asarnow is with the University of California—Los Angeles. Correspondence to David A. Abstract To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent—child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Results Although there were no differential treatment effects on parent or adolescent-report of conflict, remission was associated with improvement in the CBQ-P.
In general, intake family conflict did not predict remission, except in the sub-group of participants whose parents reported clinically significant parent—child conflict at intake, for whom high levels of parent-reported conflict predicted a lower likelihood of remission. Conflict also did not moderate treatment response. Conclusions Remission of depression may be sufficient to reduce parent-reported parent—child conflict.
However, higher parent-reported conflict, in the clinically significant range, predicts a lower likelihood of remission from depression. The extant treatment literature provides support for a bi-directional relationship between family climate and depressive outcomes. High family conflict and low family cohesion predict a poorer response to the treatment of depression, and a greater likelihood of suicidal events.
In TORDIA, we found that the addition of CBT to either medication switch was associated with a higher response rate, but there was no differential effect of medication. Based on the extant literature, we hypothesized the following: