Cashew - Wikipedia
You might think they grow inside a shell like any other nut, but their true cashews are not actually nuts, but rather fruits from the cashew tree. Learn more about Cashew uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Cashew. A new study has shed light on the possible link between men who consume high amounts of tree nuts and the decreased risk of prostate cancer death.
Cashew Nuts Growing Care Pruning Prune cashew trees regularly to remove weak, dead and entangled branches and branches that are infested with diseases or pests.
Mulching Do mulching around your cashew tree with organic matters to prevent weeds and to conserve moisture. Pests and Diseases The cashew tree is generally pest free if it is in good health. Major pests that attack it are tea mosquito, stem and root borer, leaf Miner and blossom Webber. Harvesting and Cashew Nut Processing Harvest when cashew apples turn pink or red and cashew nut shell are gray. After harvesting, separate the cashew apple from the nut.
Cashew apple can be eaten raw or make juice of it. Unshelled cashew nut can be stored up to 2 years. Do not attempt to break the shell before roasting; cashew shell contains very caustic oil which can burn skin.
How to Grow a Cashew Tree | Growing Cashew Nuts
When processing cashew nut at home must wear gloves and safety glasses and take special care. Cashew Nuts Growing Tips Sow fresh cashew seeds for germination, as they germinate easily.
A tree grown from seeds take 3 to 5 years to produce its first fruits. Choose a location that is well protected from the wind. Cashew grows better when the temperature remains around 80 degrees Fahrenheit 25 C although it can withstand temperatures as low as 50 degrees Fahrenheit 10 C and as high as Fahrenheit The Natal coastal region north of Empangeni as well as the Pongola valley are suitable areas for cashew production.
Regions in the interior, such as Malelane and Hoedspruit, with warm summers and winters are also suitable. Soil requirements The cashew is a strong plant that is renowned for growing in soils, especially sandy soils, that are generally unsuitable for other fruit trees.
For the best production deep, well-drained sandy or sandy-loam soil is recommended. Cashew trees will not grow in poorly-drained soils. Establishment Self-pollination and cross-pollination play an important role in the formation of cashew seed. Seedlings therefore show great variation and no "true to type" trees can be grown from seed. Selected trees should preferably be multiplied by grafting or air layering because vegetative propagation will ensure the best production and quality.
Trees that are precocious bearers and grow vigorously are selected. Nuts should weigh between 8 and 9 g with a density of not less than 1,0. Trees with yellow to grey-brown apples have exhibited the most resistance against anthracnose and are associated with the best production. Planting Fresh seeds that sink in water are planted in an upright position in a planting bag containing a loose, sterilised soil mixture. Three to four seeds can be planted directly in the planting hole.
The weakest ones are thinned out later and the strongest left to develop further. The seedlings are very susceptible to Phytophthora root rot. The plant bags should be to mm deep, as the tap-root grows very fast and bends around as soon as it touches the bottom.
Grafting Two grafting techniques, namely side grafting and wedge grafting are practised with success. Grafting should commence as soon as possible seedlings of months old and planted out in the orchard to prevent the tap-root from bending.
It is very important not to disturb the root system during planting. Young trees should be supported for the first 2 to 3 years so that wind will not blow the plants over. Planting distance Planting distances of 8 x 5 m is recommended.Kaju Tree Cashew
The trees grow vigorously in the first 3 years and as soon as the crowns touch each other alternate trees should be removed until the permanent planting distance of 10 to 12 m is reached. Branches hanging on the ground should be removed because they interfere with harvesting.
In other parts of the world cashew trees bear well, in spite of the little attention devoted to the orchards. Growth and production of cashew trees can be enhanced by establishing clonal orchards, and improving fertilising and irrigation practices Fertilisation The application of nitrogen and phosphate are important.
Approximately 75 g LAN and g superphosphate per year age of the tree is applied annually with a maximum of g LAN and 2 kg superphosphate.
Flowering to harvest time Flowering is affected by weather conditions and also varies from tree to tree, but continues for a period of 3 months.
High temperatures lead to earlier flowering. Both male and bisexual flowers are borne on one cluster.
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The flowers are very susceptible to mildew and control thereof on the leaves and flowers is a prerequisite for good production. Pollination is mostly by insects.
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After pollination it takes 6 to 8 weeks for the fruit to develop. The nut develops first while the apple develops and enlarges only 2 weeks before fruit fall. Nuts should be harvested as soon as possible, especially under wet conditions and should be dried before storage. Irrigation Irrigation is important during establishment of young trees because it doubles the growth tempo of young trees in a dry season.
Due to the deep root system the trees can survive several months without irrigation. Weed control Grass strips in the inter-rows between the tree lines are ideal to prevent erosion and should be cut regularly. Processing The objective of cashew processing is to extract the healthy, tasty kernel from the raw nut in the shell.
Propagation Trees are propagated from mature seeds which can be directly sown at the final planting site or planted in polyethylene bags to produce seedlings for transplanting. Only seeds that sink when floated in water should be selected for planting.
As the seeds have a poor germination rate 2—3 seeds should be sown per planting hole and then thinned as necessary. Seedlings should be thinned to a final spacing of 10 m 33 ft allowing a further 10 m 33 ft between rows. General care and maintenance Young trees should be provided with supplemental irrigation to help them establish.
Establishment of trees is slow but mature trees can survive dry periods as their extensive root systems can access moisture deep in the soil. The area around the trunk of the tree should be kept free from weeds to prevent competition for water and nutrients, particularly during establishment.