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Parliament (cigarette) Parliament cigarettes with recessed filter Parliament is an American [2] Parliaments are one of few brands of cigarettes on the mainstream market to [3] Because of the potential relationship with tobacco laws and medical drug The Camel menthol cigarette was suggested and designed by Charles. Charles II (29 May – 6 February ) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 . substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. Aug 22, With Brexit looming and England's relationship with Ireland at Fought from to , the English Civil Wars involved King Charles I battling Parliament for control of the English government. Charles II was invited to take the throne in under what has . Cigarette Chemicals in Your Shirts?.

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Although Charles granted amnesty to Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, this made specific provision for people to be excluded by the indemnity through act of Parliament.

In the end 13 people were executed: The bodies of Oliver CromwellHenry Ireton, and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous executions. The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December Shortly after Charles's coronation at Westminster Abbey on April 23,the second Parliament of the reign—the Cavalier Parliament—assembled.

As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for 17 years.

Lord Clarendon sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England; at his instigation, the Cavalier Parliament passed several acts that became part of the "Clarendon Code. The Five Mile Act of prohibited clergymen from coming within five miles of a parish from which they had been banished.

The grant, however, proved to be of little use for most of Charles's reign. The aforesaid sum was only an indication of the maximum the king was allowed to withdraw from the Treasury each year; for the most part, the amount actually in the coffers was much lower.

To avoid further financial problems, Charles appointed George Downing the builder of Downing Street to reform the management of the Treasury and the collection of taxes. Appreciative of the assistance given to him in gaining the throne, Charles awarded North American lands then known as the Carolina—named after his father—to eight nobles known as Lords Proprietors in Almost all of the ships were sunk except for the flagship, the Royal Charles, which was taken back to the Netherlands as a trophy.

The ship's nameplate remains on display, now at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.

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As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed his advisor Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. Clarendon fled to France when impeached by the House of Commons for high treason, which carried the penalty of death. Louis was forced to make peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions. In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to convert himself to Roman Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his realm will permit.

Charles endeavored to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to follow through with the conversion clause.

Meanwhile, by a series of five acts aroundCharles granted the British East India Company the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas in India.

Earlier in he leased the islands of Bombay for a paltry sum of ten pounds sterling paid in gold. Believed to have been introduced by Dutch shipping vessels carrying cotton from Amsterdamthe plague was carried by rats and fleas and the death toll at one point reached up to seven thousand per week. Charles, his family, and his court fled London in July to Oxford. Various attempts at containing the disease by London public health officials were all in vain and the disease continued to spread rapidly.

On September 2,adding to London 's woes, was what later became famously known as the Great Fire of London. Although effectively ending the spreading of the Great Plague due to the burning of all plague-carrying rats and fleas, the fire consumed about 13, houses and 87 churches, including St.

Charles II is famously remembered for joining the fire-fighters in combating the fire. At the time, a comet was visible in the night sky. The supposition of the day claimed it was God 's message, and that the above crises were as a result of God's anger. Blame was placed upon Charles and his Court, but later the people shifted their blame to the hated Roman Catholics.

Although previously favorable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the s. In Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all laws punishing Roman Catholics and other religious dissenters.

The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds, claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws, rather than on political ones. Charles II withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, but also forced them to denounce certain teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as " superstitious and idolatrous.

Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir, her pregnancies instead ending in miscarriages and stillbirths. In Titus Oates, a former Anglican cleric, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to assassinate the king and replace him with the Duke of York. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Thomas Osborne, 1st Earl of Danby to investigate.

Danby was highly skeptical about Oates's revelations, but reported the matter to Parliament. The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria; judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed. Later in Lord Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason.

Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles II had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. Lord Danby was hostile to France, but reservedly agreed to abide by Charles's wishes.

Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign.

For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household [27] and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax.

At around the same time, Anne Hydethe daughter of the Lord ChancellorEdward Hyderevealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, Jameswhom she had secretly married. Edward Hyde, who had not known of either the marriage or the pregnancy, was created Earl of Clarendon and his position as Charles's favourite minister was strengthened.

Charles was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April Dubbed the Cavalier Parliamentit was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. The Acts became known as the Clarendon Codeafter Lord Clarendon, even though he was not directly responsible for them and even spoke against the Five Mile Act.

Puritanism lost its momentum. Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwelland bawdy " Restoration comedy " became a recognisable genre. Theatre licences granted by Charles required that female parts be played by "their natural performers", rather than by boys as was often the practice before; [32] and Restoration literature celebrated or reacted to the restored court, which included libertines such as John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester.

Of Charles II, Wilmot supposedly said: We have a pretty witty king, Whose word no man relies on, He never said a foolish thing, And never did a wise one" [33] To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's".

The death toll reached a peak of 7, per week in the week of 17 September. Fanned by a strong easterly wind and fed by stockpiles of wood and fuel that had been prepared for the coming colder months, the fire eventually consumed about 13, houses and 87 churches, including St Paul's Cathedral.

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The public blamed Catholic conspirators for the fire, [39] and one Frenchman, Robert Hubertwas hanged on the basis of a false confession even though he had no hand in starting the fire.

Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service.

To lay foundations for a new beginning, envoys of the States General appeared in November with the Dutch Gift. The conflict began well for the English, with the capture of New Amsterdam renamed New York in honour of Charles's brother James, Duke of York and a victory at the Battle of Lowestoftbut in the Dutch launched a surprise attack on England the Raid on the Medway when they sailed up the River Thames to where a major part of the English fleet was docked.

Almost all of the ships were sunk except for the flagship, Royal Charleswhich was taken back to the Netherlands as a trophy. Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the Cabal — CliffordArlingtonBuckinghamAshley afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury and Lauderdale.

In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in concert, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful. Louis made peace with the Triple Alliancebut he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit".

Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. InCharles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgencein which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters.

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Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Actwhich not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, [54] but also later forced them to denounce certain teachings of the Catholic Church as " superstitious and idolatrous ".

By England had gained nothing from the Anglo-Dutch War, and the Cavalier Parliament refused to provide further funds, forcing Charles to make peace.

The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danbygrew. Charles was presented with the first pineapple grown in England in Painting by Hendrick Danckerts. Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir; her four pregnancies had ended in miscarriages and stillbirths inFebruaryMay and June Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Maryshould marry the Protestant William of Orange.

Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. While Danby seems to have been rightly sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously.

Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIVtrying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. Danby had publicly professed that he was hostile to France, but had reservedly agreed to abide by Charles's wishes.

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Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. Many members feared that he had intended to use the standing army to suppress dissent or impose Catholicism. However, with insufficient funds voted by Parliament, Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops.

Having lost the support of Parliament, Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurerbut received a pardon from the King. In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid.

When the House of Lords attempted to impose the punishment of exile—which the Commons thought too mild—the impeachment became stalled between the two Houses.

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As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Danby to the Tower of Londonin which he was held for another five years. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in Shaftesbury's power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of introduced the Exclusion Billwhich sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession.

Some even sought to confer the Crown on the Protestant Duke of Monmouththe eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic banditswhile the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians.

Charles's hopes for a more moderate Parliament were not fulfilled; within a few months he had dissolved Parliament yet again, after it sought to pass the Exclusion Bill.

When a new Parliament assembled at Oxford in MarchCharles dissolved it for a fourth time after just a few days. Lord Shaftesbury was prosecuted albeit unsuccessfully for treason in and later fled to Holland, where he died.

For the remainder of his reign, Charles ruled without Parliament. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plota plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early, thus inadvertently avoiding the planned attack.

News of the failed plot was leaked. Lord Essex slit his own throat while imprisoned in the Tower of London; Sydney and Russell were executed for high treason on very flimsy evidence; and the Duke of Monmouth went into exile at the court of William of Orange.