CAA1 - Secure dynamic communication network and protocol - Google Patents
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Starting in the s, telephonic and radio communication, along with radio and 8 TV broadcasting began an inexorable migration from analog to digital communication 9 methods and formats, driven by the need to reduce power consumption and increase battery life, to improve quality with better signal-to-noise performance, and to 'begin 11 addressing the need to carry data and text with voice.
Bymost countries had ceased, or were in the process of ceasing, all analog 16 TV broadcasting, Unlike broadcast television, cable TV carriers were not required to 17 switch to the digital format, maintaining a hybrid composite of analog and digital signals 18 till as recently as Of Their net to be able to Mi.
The resulting evolution or eircuititehed telephony is schematically represented by Figure 1, as a "public switched telephone network" or PSTN comprising an 31 amalgamation of radio, cellular, PBX, and POTS connections and sub-networks, each 1 comprising dissimilar technologies.
Each sub-network operates independently, driving like-kind devices. For example, POTS gateway 3, still common in rural communities, connects by twisted 6 copper pair wire 7 to conventional analog phones 6 or alternatively to cordless phones 5. Wireless roaming phones 13 represent a business-centric enhancement to a 16 conventional cordless phone, providing the phone access to corporate WiFi connections 17 or in the case of Japan's personal handphone system or PHS, to access a public 18 microcellular network located outside of the company in high traffic volume corridors 19 and in the business districts of densely populated cities such as Shinjuku Tokyo.
Bandwidth, transmission range, and battery life are extremely limitedin PHS products. Through cellular tower 18, circuit switched cellular networks 17 connect using standardized cellular radio frequencies 28 to 24 mobile devices such as cell phones 19A.
Such two-way radio 29 networks, commonly used by police officers, ambulances, paramedics, fire departments,: AS used herein, the terms 'desktop" "tablet' and ".
As such, professional radio communication services remain 7 distinct and uniquely dissimilar from consumer cellular phone networks. It is this very diversity that defines an intrinsic weakness of today's circuit switched networks interoperability among sub-networks. With no 24 standardizationin their: The definition of legal and illegal spying and surveillance and any 31 obligation for compliance for cooperation by a network operator varies dramatically by 1 -country and has been a heated point of contention among global companies such as 2 Google, Yahoo, and Apple operating across numerous international boundaries.
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While all networks are vulnerable, the antiquity and poor security 12 provisions of PSINs render them especially easy to hack. As such, a PSTN connected to 13 even a secure modern network represents a weak point in the overall system, creating 14 vulnerability for security violations and cybercrimes. Nonetheless, it will still take many years, if not decades, to retire the global PSTN network and completely replace it with 16 1P-based packet-switched communication.
Such packet-based networks described here 17 belowwhile more modem than PSTNs, are still unsecure and subject to security breaks, 18 hacks, denial of service attacks, and privacy invasions. Packet-Switched Communication Network Operation 21 If two tin cans connected by a string represent a metaphor for the operation of 22 modern day circuit-switched telephony, then the post office represents the similar 23 metaphor for packet-switch communication networks.
The format and communication 28 protocol is also designed to include information as to the nature of the data contained in 29 the packet including content specific to-the program or application for which it will-be used, and the hardware. At that time, the US Department of Defense 3 DOD expressed concerns that a spaced-based nuclear missile attack could wipe out the 4 entire communication infrastructure of the United States, disabling its ability to respond S to a USSR preemptive strike, and that the vulnerability to such.
So the DoD sponsored the creation of a redundant communication system 7 or grid-like "network", one where the network's ability to deliver information between 8 military installations could not be thwarted by destroying any specific data link or even 9 numerous links within the network.
One of its fundamental tenets, lack of central control or the need for a central 16 mainframe, propelled the Internet to ubiquity in part because no country or government 17 could stop it or even were fully aware of its global implications and also because its 18 user base comprised consumers using their newly acquired personal computers.
By the mid 21 s. Internet users realized that the same packet-switched network that carries data 22 could also be used to carry voice, and soon thereafter "voice over Internet protocol" or 23 VolP was born. While the concept theoretically enabled anyone with Internet access to 24 communicate by voice over the Internet for free, propagation delays across the network, i.
While delay times have 26 improved with the adoption of high-speed Ethernet links, high-speed WiFi connectivity, 27 and 4G data to improve connection quality in the "last-mile", the Internet itself was 28 created to insure accurate delivery of data packets, but not to guarantee the time required 29 to deliver the packets, i.
So the dream of using the Internet to replace expensive long distance 31 telecommunication carriers or "telco's" has remained largely unfulfilled despite the 1 availability of "over-the. OTT telephony suffers from poor quality of service QoS resulting from 3 uncontrolled network latency, poor sound quality, dropped calls, echo, reverberation, 4 feedback, choppy sound, and oftentimes the inability to even initiate a call. The poor performance of OTT communication is intrinsically not a weakness of the VolP based 6 protocol but of the network itself, one where OTT carriers have no control over the path 7 which data takes or the delays the communication encounters.
Internet Protocol manages the ability of the network to deliver the payload to its 17 destination, without any care or concern for what information is being carried or what 18 application will use it, avoiding altogether any need for customized software interfaces 19 and expensive proprietary hardware.
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In many cases, even application related payloads have established. The most recent phrase 27 describing this universal connectivity is the "Internet of Everything" or IoE, 28 Figure 2 illustrates but a few examples of such. As 29 shown, a large array of computers including high-speed cloud servers 21, and 2IC and cloud data storage 20 are interconnected by high bandwidth connections 23, typically 31 optical fiber, among with countless other servers not shown to form Internet cloud On a daily and 3 even on a minute-to-minute basis, servers come online while others may be taken offline 4 for maintenance, all without any impact.
This is the benefit of a truly redundant distributed system - there is no single point: WiFi or wireless links. As shown, cloud server 21A connects through a 9 wired or fiber link 24 to wireless tower 25, to WiFi access point 26, or to wire-line distribution unit These "last-mile" links in turn connect to any number of 11 communication or connected devices.
For example wireless tower 25 may connect by 12 cellular radio 28 to smartphone 32, to tablet 33, or to connected car 31, and may be used 13 to serve mobile users 40 including for example, pedestrians, drivers of personal vehicles, 14 law enforcement officers, and professional drivers in the trucking and delivery industry.
LTE, or long-term-evolution, 17 refers to the network standards to insure interoperability with a variety of cellular 18 protocols including the ability to seamlessly hand-off phone calls from one cell to another 19 cell even when the cells are operating with different protocols. As a matter of definition, as used herein "last-mile" refers to the link between any type of client device, 21 such as a tablet, desktop or cell phone, and a cloud server.
Directionally, the term "first mile" is sometimes also used to specify the link between the device originating the data 23 transmission and the cloud server.
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For shorter distance communication, WiFi access point 26 connects by WiFi radio 26 29 to smartphone 32, tablet 33, notebook 35, desktop 36 or connected appliance 34 and 27 may be used in localized wireless applications in homes, cafes, restaurants, and offices.
WiFi comprises communication operating inaccordance with IEEE defined standards for 29 single-carrier frequency specifications WiFi security, based on a simple 1.
The wire-line connection may comprise fiber or coaxial cable distribution to the 8 home, office, factory, or business connected locally though a modem to convert high-9 speed data 1-ISD connection into WiFi, Ethernet, or twisted pair copper wire. In remote areas where fiber or cable is not available, digital subscriber line DSL connections are 11 still used but with dramatically compromised data rates and connection reliability.
In contrast to circuit switched networks that establish and maintain a direct 16 connection between devices, packet-switched communications uses an address to "route" 17 the packet through the Internet to its destination. As such, in packet-switched 18 communication networks, there is no single dedicated circuit maintaining a connection 19 between the communicating devices, nor does data traveling through the: Internet travel in 2Q asingle consistent path.
Each 'packettnnat find its way through the mazCOf 21 interconnected computers to reach its target destination, 22 Figure 3 illustrates a hypothetical example of the routing of an IP packet from 23 notebook 60 to desktop 61 using packet-switched network communication. In operation, 24 the first data packet sent from notebook 60 to WiFi router 62A via wireless connection 63A is directed toward array of DNS servers 70, DNS being an acronym for domain 26 name servers. The purpose of the array of DNS servers 70 is to convert the textual name 27 or phone number of the destination device, in this case desktop 61, into an IP address.
Priofto routing the packet, DNS rOot server: In the 31 event that DNS secondary-server 71 does not know the address of the destination device, 1 it can request the missing information from DNS root server Ultimately, the IP 2 address is passed from the array of DNS servers 70 back to the source address, i.
Fi radio 63A to WiFi router 62A 6 and then subsequently across the network of routers and servers acting as intermediary 7 routers to its destination. For example, a series of dedicated routers as shown include 8 65A, 65B, and 65C and computer servers operating as routers include 66A through 66E, 9 together form a router network operating either as nodes in the Internet or as a point of presence or POP, Le.
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For clarity's sake it should be 14 noted the term POP in network vernacular should not be confused with the application name POP, or plain old post office, used in email applications. These routing tables are automatically downloaded and. When an IP packet comes into a 21 router, POP or super POP, the router reads enough of the IP address, generally the higher 22 most significant digits of the address, to know where to next direct the packet on its 23 journey to its destination.
Although super POP 29 66A also has many choices, it decides the best path at that particular moment is route And since the number of routers a packet S Inverses and the available data rate of each of the connections between routers varies by 6 infrastructure and by network traffic and loading, there is no way to determine a priori 7 which path is fastest or best. As such, the packet "discovers" its way through 13 the Internet based on the priorities of the companies operating the routers and servers the 14 packet traverses.
Each router, in essence, contains certain routing tables and routing algorithms that define its preferred routes based on the condition of the network.
For 16 example, a router's preferences may prioritize sending packets to other routers owned by 17 the same company, balancing the traffic among connections to adjacent: When a packet enters a router, there is no way to know whether the routing 21 choices made by the specific POP were made in the best interest of the sender or of the 22 network server operator.
In the 24 previous New York to Tokyo routing example, the routing and resulting QoS can vary substantially based on even a small perturbation in the path, i. Consider the case where the packet from New York goes 27 through "router A" in Chicago and because of temporary high traffic in California, it is 28 forwarded to Mexico City rather than. The Mexico City rooter then in turn.
I in such a case,: This example highlights the problematic issue of using the 3 Internet for real-time communication such as live video streaming or VolP, namely that 4 the Internet is not designed to guarantee the time of delivery or to control network delays. Latency can vary from 50ms to over I second just depending 6 on whether a packet is routed through only two servers or through fifteen.
The Internet's lack of routing control is problematic for real-time applications and 8 is especially an issue of poor QoS for orr carriers carriers trying to provide Internet 9 based telephony by catching a free ride on top of the Internet's infrastructure.
Since the orf carrier doesn't control the routing, they can't control the delay or network latency. If a pirate intercepts a packet and identifies its source or 13 destination IP address, they can use a variety of methods to intercept data from 14 intervening routers and either sniff or redirect traffic through their own pirate network to spy on the conversation and even crack encrypted files.
The IP packet contains digital information defining 19 the physical connection between devices, the way the data is organized to link the devices 2Q tOgether, the network routing of the packet,A means te, insure the useful data payload 21 was: Each portion or "segment" of the IP packet corresponds to data applying to function of 6 the particular OS1 layer summarized in table 87 of Figure 4.
The roles of the seven OS! Converting a specific communication medium such as 12 WiFi radio, Ethernet, serial ports, optical fiber, 30 or 40 cellular radio, DSL on 13 twisted pair copper wire, USB,: Bluetooth, cable or satellite TV, or digital 14 broadcasts of audio, video, or multimedia content into a bit stream is the task of the PHY layer, In the IP packet, preamble 80, represents Layer I data, and is used 16 to synchronize the entire data packet or "frame", to the hardware transceiving it.
In the IP packet, Layer 2 data encapsulates the remainder of the packet, segments 82, 83, and 84, with a leading "data link header" Si, and a 26 trailing "data link trailer" 85, together defining when the encapsulated payload 27 being delivered starts and stops, as well as to insure nothing was lost in the 28 transmission process.
One key element of Layer 2. A specific type of 9 Layer 3 packet, IMP is used to diagnose the condition of a network, including the well-known "ping" function.
In the IP packet, Layer 3 comprises "IP header" 11 82 and encapsulates its payload comprising transport and upper layer segments 83 12 and UDP is considered conneetionless because it does not confirm 18 delivery of the payload, relying instead on the application to check for errors or 19 lost data.
UDP is typically used for time sensitive communication such as broadcasting, multicasting, and streaming where resending a packet is-notan 21 option.
In contrast, TCP insures a virtual connection by confirming the packet and 22 payload are reliably delivered before the next packet is sent, and resends dropped 23 packets. TCP also checks the data integrity of the delivered packets using a 24 checksum, and includes provisions for reassembling out-of-sequence packets in their original order.
Both TCP and UDP define the source and destination ports, a 26 description of an upper layer service or application, e. Layer 7, the "application" layer, represents 1. Level S, the "session" layer, establishes cross-application connectivity, such as importing one object into another program file, 16 and control initiating and terminating a session.
The outer packet Or Layer 21 defines the enfire IT frame containing information relating to all the higher; levels. Within 22 this PHY data, the Layer 2 data frame describes the data link layer and contains the Layer 23 3 network datagram.
This datagram in turn describes the Internet layer as its payload, 24 with Layer 4 segment data describing the transport layer. The transport layer carries upper layer data as a payload including Layer 5, 6 and 7 content. Og layers encapsulated within the IP packet describing the network and transport information 31 are completely agnostic to the hardware used to communicate and deliver the IP packet. This partitioning enables 4 each layer to essentially be supervised independently, supporting a myriad of possible.
Incomplete or 7 improper IP packets are simply discarded. In this manner, packet-switched networks are 8 able to route, transport and deliver diverse application related information over disparate 9 communication mediums in a coherent fashion between and among any Internet connected devices or objects, 11 In conclusion, switched circuit networks require a single direct! To better 6 understand the method by which packet-switched networks accomplish this goal, it is 7 necessary to look deeper into the function and role of each layer in the seven-layer OSI 8 model for networks: While it is the most basic.
Broadly viewed, communication 14 hardware can be broken into two types high-bandwidth communication used for high-traffic-volume pipes connecting servers forming the backbone of the Internet, i.
Microwave communication requires direct line-of-sight links 22 between microwave towers 96A and B. Similarly, satellite 24 communication requires illicit Wave uplinks and downlinks95A and 95B between satellite 93 and satellite dishes 92A and 92B connected to POP-servers 21A and 21B, As 26 in the prior example, wire-line connections 94A and connect the servers 21A and 27 21B to the satellite dishes 92A and 92B.
Servers 21A and 21B can also connect directly 28 using a high-bandwidth optical connection 90 carried on optical fibers While 29 terrestrial and undersea cables previously comprised large multi-conductor conduits of 1 copper wire, the limited bandwidth and high cost of copper has accelerated a global 2 migration to optical fiber.
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As shown, wire-line connections 6 may comprise optical fiber 91 and coaxial cableand to diminishing degree twisted 7 pair copper wire. Wireless connections may be transmitted by a number of means 8 including cellular radio tower 18, two-way radio tower 15, WiFi access point 26, and 9 satellite As some examples, server 21C acting as a cloud gateway connects by fiber 11 connection 24 to LIE base station 17 driving radio tower 18 for cellular communication 12 28 connecting to cell phone 32, tablet 33, or notebook Server 21C also connects to 13 public Win muter transmitting WiFi 29 to phone 32, tablet 33.
Cable modem generates two different types of 17 outputs -- voice and high speed digital HSD. The collateral damage was widespread: The action inadvertently broke many other web services that use those platforms, and Roskomnadzor scaled back after it became clear that its action had affected services critical for Russian business. Even so, the censor is still blocking millions of IP addresses. Roskomnadzor could further pressure Apple, though, including by threatening to turn off its entire iPhone app business in Russia.
Telegram might seem a weird app for Russia to focus on. In general, proprietary cryptography has numerous fatal security flaws.
We generally recommend Signal for secure SMS messaging, or, if having that program on your computer is somehow incriminating, WhatsApp.
What Telegram has going for it is that it works really well on lousy networks. Iran is also trying to ban the app. The Russians might not like that Telegram is encrypted, but odds are good that they can simply break the encryption.
The reasons are not rooted in business decisions. Simply put, Telegram is a Russian product and the designers are more motivated to poke Russia in the eye. For the moment, Russia has lost. But this battle is far from over.
Russia could easily come back with more targeted pressure on Google, Amazon and Apple. A year earlier, Zello used the same trick Telegram is using to evade Russian censors.
Then, Roskomnadzor threatened to block all of Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud; and in that instance, both companies forced Zello to stop its IP-hopping censorship-evasion tactic. Russia could also further develop its censorship infrastructure. Right now, Russia can block only specific IP addresses, which is too coarse a tool for this issue.