Synchronicity - Wikipedia
Jung also noted the relationship between our personal unconscious, which contains an individual's personal memories and ideas, and a collective unconscious. Their relationship began to cool in , during a trip to America. They were .. Jung gives us three principles, beginning with the principle of opposites. Jung believed that each of us is motivated not only by repressed experiences but The unconscious elements have no relationship to the ego. Jung's notion of.
Mothers are overtaken by their children, men by their own creations, and what was originally brought into being only with labour and the greatest effort can no longer be held in check. First it was passion, then it became duty, and finally an intolerable burden, a vampire that battens on the life of its creator.
Middle life is the moment of greatest unfolding, when a man still gives himself to his work with his whole strength and his whole will. But in this very moment evening is born, and the second half of life begins. Passion now changes her face and is called duty; "I want" becomes the inexorable "I must," and the turnings of the pathway that once brought surprise and discovery become dulled by custom.
The wine has fermented and begins to settle and clear. Conservative tendencies develop if all goes well; instead of looking forward one looks backward, most of the time involuntarily, and one begins to take stock, to see how one's life has developed up to this point. The real motivations are sought and real discoveries are made.
The critical survey of himself and his fate enables a man to recognize his peculiarities. But these insights do not come to him easily; they are gained only through the severest shocks. Since the aims of the second half of life are different from those of the first, to linger too long in the youthful attitude produces a division of the will.
Consciousness still presses forward, in obedience, as it were, to its own inertia, but the unconscious lags behind, because the strength and inner resolve needed for further expansion have been sapped.
This disunity with oneself begets discontent, and since one is not conscious of the real state of things one generally projects the reasons for it upon one's partner. A critical atmosphere thus develops, the necessary prelude to conscious realization. Usually this state does not begin simultaneously for both partners. Even the best of marriages cannot expunge individual differences so completely that the state of mind of the partners is absolutely identical.
In most cases one of them will adapt to marriage more quickly than the other. The one who is grounded on a positive relationship to the parents will find little or no difficulty in adjusting to his or her partner, while the other may be hindered by a deep-seated unconscious tie to the parents.
He will therefore achieve complete adaptation only later, and, because it is won with greater difficulty, it may even prove the more durable. These differences in tempo, and in the degree of spiritual development, are the chief causes of a typical difficulty which makes its appearance at critical moments. In speaking of "the degree of spiritual development" of a personality, I do not wish to imply an especially rich or magnanimous nature.
Such is not the case at all. I mean, rather, a certain complexity of mind or nature, comparable to a gem with many facets as opposed to the simple cube. There are many-sided and rather problematical natures burdened with hereditary traits that are sometimes very difficult to reconcile. Adaptation to such natures, or their adaptation to simpler personalities, is always a problem.
These people, having a certain tendency to dissociation, generally have the capacity to split off irreconcilable traits of character for considerable periods, thus passing themselves off as much simpler than they are; or it may happen that their many-sidedness, their very versatility, lends them a peculiar charm.
Their partners can easily lose themselves in such a labyrinthine nature, finding in it such an abundance of possible experiences that their personal interests are completely absorbed, sometimes in a not very agreeable way, since their sole occupation then consists in tracking the other through all the twists and turns of his character. There is always so much experience available that the simpler personality is surrounded, if not actually swamped, by it; he is swallowed up in his more complex partner and cannot see his way out.
It is an almost regular occurrence for a woman to be wholly contained, spiritually, in her husband, and for a husband to be wholly contained, emotionally, in his wife.
One could describe this as the problem of the "contained" and the "container. The unpleasant side of this otherwise ideal partnership is the disquieting dependence upon a personality that can never be seen in its entirety, and is therefore not altogether credible or dependable. The great advantage lies in his own undividedness, and this is a factor not to be underrated in the psychic economy. The container, on the other hand, who in accordance with his tendency to dissociation has an especial need to unify himself in undivided love for another, will be left far behind in this effort, which is naturally very difficult for him, by the simpler personality.
While he is seeking in the latter all the subtleties and complexities that would complement and correspond to his own facets, he is disturbing the other's simplicity. Since in normal circumstances simplicity always has the advantage over complexity, he will very soon be obliged to abandon his efforts to arouse subtle and intricate reactions in a simpler nature.
And soon enough his partner, who in accordance with her simpler nature expects simple answers from him, will give him plenty to do by constellating his complexities with her everlasting insistence on simple answers. Willy-nilly, he must withdraw into himself before the suasions of simplicity. Any mental effort, like the conscious process itself is so much of a strain for the ordinary man that he in' variably prefers the simple, even when it does not happen to be the truth.
And when it represents at least a half-truth, then it is all up with him. The simpler nature works on the more complicated like a room that is too small, that does not allow him enough space.
Jung: Anima and Animus
The complicated nature on the other hand, gives the simpler one too many rooms' with too much space, so that she never knows where she really belongs. So it comes about quite naturally that the more complicated contains the simpler. The former cannot be absorbed in the latter, but encompasses it without being itself contained. Yet, since the more complicated has perhaps a greater need of being contained than the other, he eels himself outside the marriage and accordingly always plays the problematical role.
The more the contained clings the more the container feels shut out of the relationship' The contained pushes into it by her clinging, and the more she pushes, the less the container is able to respond.
He therefore tends to spy out of the window, no doubt unconsciously at first; but with the onset of middle age there awakens in him a more insistent longing for that unity and undividedness which is especially necessary to him on account of his dissociated nature.
At this juncture things are apt to occur that bring the conflict to a head. He be-comes conscious of the fact that he is seeking completion, seeking the contentedness and undividedness that have always been lacking.
For the contained this is only a confirmation of the insecurity she has always felt so painfully; she discovers that in the rooms which apparently belonged to her there dwell other, unwished-for guests. The hope of security vanishes, and this disappointment drives her in on herself, unless by desperate and violent efforts she can succeed in forcing her partner to capitulate, and in extorting a confession that his longing for unity was nothing but a childish or morbid fantasy.
If these tactics do not succeed, her acceptance of failure may do her a real good, by forcing her to recognize that the security she was so desperately seeking in the other is to be found in herself. In this way she finds herself and discovers in her own simpler nature all those complexities which the container had sought for in vain. If the container does not break down in face of what we are wont to call "unfaithfulness," but goes on believing in the inner justification of his longing for unity, he will have to put up with his self-division for the time being.
A dissociation is not healed by being split off, but by more complete disintegration. All the powers that strive for unity, all healthy desire for selfhood, will resist the disintegration, and in this way he will become conscious of the possibility of an inner integration, which before he had always sought outside himself. He will then find his reward in an undivided self. This is what happens very frequently about the midday of life, and in this wise our miraculous human nature enforces the transition that leads from the first half of life to the second.
It is a metamorphosis from a state in which man is only a tool of instinctive nature, to another in which he is no longer a tool, but himself: One should take great care not to interrupt this necessary development by acts of moral violence, for any attempt to create a spiritual attitude by splitting off and suppressing the instincts is a falsification.
Nothing is more repulsive than a furtively prurient spirituality; it is just as unsavoury as gross sensuality. Hut the transition takes a long time, and the great majority of people get stuck in the first stages. If only we could, like the primitives, leave the unconscious to look after this whole psychological development which marriage entails, these transformations could be worked out more completely and without too much friction. So often among so-called "primitives" one comes across spiritual personalities who immediately inspire respect, as though they were the fully matured products of an undisturbed fate.
I speak here from personal experience. But where among present-day Europeans can one find people not deformed by acts of moral violence? We are still barbarous enough to believe in both asceticism and its opposite.
But the wheel of history cannot be put back; we can only strive towards an attitude that will allow us to live out our fate as undisturbedly as the primitive pagan in us really wants.
Only on this condition can we be sure of not perverting spirituality into sensuality, and vice versa; for both must live, each drawing life from the other. The transformation I have briefly described above is the very essence of the psychological marriage relationship. Much could be said about the illusions that serve the ends of nature and bring about the transformations that are characteristic of middle life. The peculiar harmony that characterizes marriage during the first half of life -- provided the adjustment is successful -- is largely based on the projection of certain archetypal images, as the critical phase makes clear.
Every man carries within him the eternal image of woman, not the image of this or that particular woman, but a definite feminine image.
This image is fundamentally unconscious, an hereditary factor of primordial origin engraved in the living organic system of the man, an imprint or 'archetype" of all the ancestral experiences of the female, a deposit, as it were, of all the impressions ever made by woman-in short, an inherited system of psychic adaptation.
Carl Jung | Simply Psychology
Even if no women existed, it would still be possible, at any given time, to deduce from this unconscious image exactly how a woman would have to be constituted psychically. The same is true of the woman: Actually, we know from experience that it would be more accurate to describe it as an image of men, whereas in the case of the man it is rather the image of woman.
Since this image is unconscious, it is always unconsciously projected upon the person of the beloved, and is one of the chief reasons for passionate attraction or aversion. I have called this image the "anima," and I find the scholastic question Habet mulier animam? Woman has no anima, no soul, but she has an animus. The anima has an erotic, emotional character, the animus a rationalizing one. Hence most of what men say about feminine eroticism, and particularly about the emotional life of women, is derived from their own anima projections and distorted accordingly.
On the other hand, the astonishing assumptions and fantasies that women make about men come from the activity of the animus, who produces an inexhaustible supply of illogical arguments and false explanations. Anima and animus are both characterized by an extraordinary many-sidedness.
In a marriage it is always the contained who projects this image upon the container, while the latter is only partially able to project his unconscious image upon his partner.
The more unified and simple this partner is, the less complete the projection. In which case, this highly fascinating image hangs as it were in mid air, as though waiting to be filled out by a living person. There are certain types of women who seem to be made by nature to attract anima projections; indeed one could almost speak of a definite "anima type. A woman of this kind is both old and young, mother and daughter, of more than doubtful chastity, childlike, and yet endowed with a naive cunning that is extremely disarming to men.
Not every man of real intellectual power can be an animus, for the animus must be a master not so much of fine ideas as of fine words -- words seemingly full of meaning which purport to leave a great deal unsaid.Carl Jung - What are the Archetypes?
He must also belong to the "misunderstood" class or be in some way at odds with his environment, so that the idea of self-sacrifice can insinuate itself.
He must be a rather questionable hero, a man with possibilities, which is not to say that an animus projection may not discover a real hero long before he has become perceptible to the sluggish wits of the man of "average intelligence. Wide vistas seem to open up in which one feels oneself embraced and contained. Preiswerk was antistesthe title given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraistauthor and editor, who taught Paul Jung as his professor of Hebrew at Basel University.
Emilie Jung was an eccentric and depressed woman; she spent considerable time in her bedroom where she said that spirits visited her at night. He reported that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body.
Jung had a better relationship with his father. His father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but he was later brought back to his father's residence.
Emilie Jung's continuing bouts of absence and depression deeply troubled her son and caused him to associate women with "innate unreliability", whereas "father" meant for him reliability but also powerlessness.
Later, these early impressions were revised: I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, and I have mistrusted women and was not disappointed. The relocation brought Emilie Jung closer into contact with her family and lifted her melancholy. Known in the family as "Trudi", she later became a secretary to her brother. From childhood, he believed that, like his mother,  he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century.
Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father's academic approach to faith. As a boy, he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pencil case and placed it inside the case. He added a stone, which he had painted into upper and lower halves, and hid the case in the attic. Periodically, he would return to the mannequin, often bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language.
Years later, he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in indigenous culturessuch as the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim or the tjurungas of Australia. He concluded that his intuitive ceremonial act was an unconscious ritual, which he had practiced in a way that was strikingly similar to those in distant locations which he, as a young boy, knew nothing about.
Jung later recognized that the incident was his fault, indirectly. A thought then came to him—"now you won't have to go to school anymore. He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking hurriedly to a visitor about the boy's future ability to support himself. They suspected he had epilepsy. Confronted with the reality of his family's poverty, he realized the need for academic excellence.
He went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three more times but eventually overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is.
But, studying a psychiatric textbook, he became very excited when he discovered that psychoses are personality diseases.
His interest was immediately captured—it combined the biological and the spiritual, exactly what he was searching for. Barely a year later inhis father Paul died and left the family near destitute.
They were helped out by relatives who also contributed to Jung's studies. In later life, he pulled back from this tale, saying only that Sophie was a friend of Goethe's niece. Bleuler was already in communication with the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
In he published Diagnostic Association Studies, and later sent a copy of this book to Freud. It turned out that Freud had already bought a copy. For six years they cooperated in their work.
Consequently, their personal and professional relationship fractured—each stating that the other was unable to admit he could possibly be wrong. After the culminating break inJung went through a difficult and pivotal psychological transformation, exacerbated by the outbreak of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung's intense experience a "creative illness" and compared it favorably to Freud's own period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria.
Jung worked to improve the conditions of soldiers stranded in neutral territory and encouraged them to attend university courses. Rauschenbach was the owner, among other concerns, of IWC Schaffhausen — the International Watch Company, manufacturers of luxury time-pieces.
Upon his death inhis two daughters and their husbands became owners of the business. Jung's brother-in-law— Ernst Homberger —became the principal proprietor, but the Jungs remained shareholders in a thriving business that ensured the family's financial security for decades. She eventually became a noted psychoanalyst in her own right. They had five children: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene.
The marriage lasted until Emma's death in His alleged affairs with Sabina Spielrein : Though it was mostly taken for granted that Jung's relationship with Spielrein included a sexual relationship, this assumption has been disputed, in particular by Henry Zvi Lothane. The two men met for the first time the following year and Jung recalled the discussion between himself and Freud as interminable. He recalled that they talked almost unceasingly for thirteen hours. This marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted six years and ended in May Group photo in front of Clark University.
Front row, Sigmund FreudG. Stanley HallCarl Jung. Jung and Freud influenced each other during the intellectually formative years of Jung's life. Jung had become interested in psychiatry as a student by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing.
In Jung was appointed as a permanent 'senior' doctor at the hospital and also became a lecturer Privatdozent in the medical faculty of Zurich University. Preceded by a lively correspondence, Jung met Freud for the first time, in Vienna on 3 March The conference at Clark University was planned by the psychologist G. Stanley Hall and included twenty-seven distinguished psychiatrists, neurologists and psychologists.
It represented a watershed in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America. This forged welcome links between Jung and influential Americans. Freud would come to call Jung "his adopted eldest son, his crown prince and successor". While he did think that libido was an important source for personal growth, unlike Freud, Jung did not believe that libido alone was responsible for the formation of the core personality.
In these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying him a visit in nearby Zurich, an incident Jung referred to as "the Kreuzlingen gesture".
Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the United States and gave the Fordham University lectures, a six-week series, which were published as The Theory of Psychoanalysis While they contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting view on the libido, they represent largely a "psychoanalytical Jung" and not the theory of analytical psychology, for which he became famous in the following decades.
Another primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. According to Jung, Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Freud had actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche. While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and extraverted type in analytical psychology.