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Tagore released his Manasi poemsamong his best-known work. As Zamindar Babu, Tagore criss-crossed the riverine holdings in command of the Padma, the luxurious family barge. He collected mostly token rents and blessed villagers who in turn honoured him with banquets—occasionally of dried rice and sour milk. He met Gagan Harkara, through whom he became familiar with Baul Lalon Shah, whose folk songs greatly influenced Tagore. Tagore worked to popularise Lalon's songs.

The period —, Tagore's Sadhana period, named after one of Tagore's magazines, was his most productive; in these years he wrote more than half the stories of the three-volume, story Galpaguchchha. Its ironic and grave tales examined the voluptuous poverty of an idealised rural Bengal. There his wife and two of his children died. His father died in He received monthly payments as part of his inheritance and income from the Maharaja of Tripura, sales of his family's jewelry, his seaside bungalow in Puri, and a derisory 2, rupees in book royalties.

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He gained Bengali and foreign readers alike; he published Naivedya and Kheya and translated poems into free verse. Inthe British Crown granted Tagore a knighthood. He renounced it after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. InTagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the "Institute for Rural Reconstruction", later renamed Shriniketan or "Abode of Welfare", in Surul, a village near the ashram.

With it, Tagore sought to moderate Gandhi's Swaraj protests, which he occasionally blamed for British India's perceived mental—and thus ultimately colonial—decline. In the early s he targeted ambient "abnormal caste consciousness" and untouchability. He lectured against these, he penned Dalit heroes for his poems and his dramas, and he campaigned—successfully—to open Guruvayoor Temple to Dalits. During a May visit to a Bedouin encampment in the Iraqi desert, the tribal chief told him that "Our prophet has said that a true Muslim is he by whose words and deeds not the least of his brother-men may ever come to any harm That year, an earthquake hit Bihar and killed thousands.

Gandhi hailed it as seismic karma, as divine retribution avenging the oppression of Dalits. Tagore rebuked him for his seemingly ignominious inferences. He mourned the perennial poverty of Calcutta and the socioeconomic decline of Bengal. He detailed these newly plebeian aesthetics in an unrhymed hundred-line poem whose technique of searing double-vision foreshadowed Satyajit Ray's film Apur Sansar. Fifteen new volumes appeared, among them prose-poem works PunashchaShes Saptakand Patraput Experimentation continued in his prose-songs and dance-dramas: ChitraShyamaand Chandalika ; and in his novels: Dui BonMalanchaand Char Adhyay Tagore's remit expanded to science in his last years, as hinted in Visva-Parichay, collection of essays.

His respect for scientific laws and his exploration of biology, physics, and astronomy informed his poetry, which exhibited extensive naturalism and verisimilitude.

He wove the process of science, the narratives of scientists, into stories in SeTin Sangiand Galpasalpa His last five years were marked by chronic pain and two long periods of illness. These began when Tagore lost consciousness in late ; he remained comatose and near death for a time. This was followed in late by a similar spell.

Poetry from these valetudinary years is among his finest. A period of prolonged agony ended with Tagore's death on 7 Augustaged eighty; he was in an upstairs room of the Jorasanko mansion he was raised in. The date is still mourned. Sen, brother of the first chief election commissioner, received dictation from Tagore on 30 Julya day prior to a scheduled operation: I want my friends, their touch, with the earth's last love.

I will take life's final offering, I will take the human's last blessing. Today my sack is empty. I have given completely whatever I had to give. In return if I receive anything—some love, some forgiveness—then I will take it with me when I step on the boat that crosses to the festival of the wordless end.

Yeats wrote the preface to the English translation of Gitanjali; Andrews joined Tagore at Santiniketan. His essay "Nationalism in India" was scorned and praised; it was admired by Romain Rolland and other pacifists.

Shortly after returning home the year-old Tagore accepted an invitation from the Peruvian government. He travelled to Mexico. He left for home in January Their warm rapport ended when Tagore pronounced upon Il Duce's fascist finesse. He had earlier enthused: On 14 July Tagore and two companions began a four-month tour of Southeast Asia. The resultant travelogues compose Jatri In early he left Bengal for a nearly year-long tour of Europe and the United States.

Upon returning to Britain—and as his paintings exhibited in Paris and London—he lodged at a Birmingham Quaker settlement. There, addressing relations between the British and the Indians—a topic he would tackle repeatedly over the next two years—Tagore spoke of a "dark chasm of aloofness".

Wells and Romain Rolland. Visits to Persia and Iraq in and Sri Lanka in composed Tagore's final foreign tour, and his dislike of communalism and nationalism only deepened. Vice President of India M. Hamid Ansari has said that Rabindranath Tagore heralded the cultural rapprochement between communities, societies and nations much before it became the liberal norm of conduct. Tagore was a man ahead of his time. He wrote inwhile on a visit to Iran, that "each country of Asia will solve its own historical problems according to its strength, nature and needs, but the lamp they will each carry on their path to progress will converge to illuminate the common ray of knowledge.

Works Known mostly for his poetry, Tagore wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; he is indeed credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre.

His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter: Tagore's non-fiction grappled with history, linguistics, and spirituality.

His brief chat with Einstein, "Note on the Nature of Reality", is included as an appendix to the latter. On the occasion of Tagore's th birthday an anthology titled Kalanukromik Rabindra Rachanabali of the total body of his works is currently being published in Bengali in chronological order. This includes all versions of each work and fills about eighty volumes. Music and Art Tagore composed 2, songs and was a prolific painter.

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His songs compose rabindrasangit "Tagore Song"which merges fluidly into his literature, most of which—poems or parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—were lyricised. Influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music, they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions.

Some songs mimicked a given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully; others newly blended elements of different ragas. Yet about nine-tenths of his work was not bhanga gaan, the body of tunes revamped with "fresh value" from select Western, Hindustani, Bengali folk and other regional flavours "external" to Tagore's own ancestral culture.

Scholars have attempted to gauge the emotive force and range of Hindustani ragas: In bhupali he seemed to hear a voice in the wind saying 'stop and come hither'. The Singer and His Song.

His songs are widely popular and undergird the Bengali ethos to an extent perhaps rivaling Shakespeare's impact on the English-speaking world. It is said that his songs are the outcome of five centuries of Bengali literary churning and communal yearning.

Dhan Gopal Mukerji has said that these songs transcend the mundane to the aesthetic and express all ranges and categories of human emotion. The poet gave voice to all—big or small, rich or poor. The poor Ganges boatman and the rich landlord air their emotions in them. They birthed a distinctive school of music whose practitioners can be fiercely traditional: For Bengalis, the songs' appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing even Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "there is in Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung Even illiterate villagers sing his songs".

Arthur Strangways of The Observer introduced non-Bengalis to rabindrasangit in The Music of Hindostan, calling it a "vehicle of a personality It was written—ironically—to protest the Partition of Bengal along communal lines: Tagore saw the partition as a ploy to upend the independence movement, and he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar communalism.

Jana Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhasha, a Sanskritised register of Bengali, and is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn that Tagore composed. It was first sung in at a Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress and was adopted in by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of India as its national anthem.

At sixty, Tagore took up drawing and painting; successful exhibitions of his many works—which made a debut appearance in Paris upon encouragement by artists he met in the south of France[95]—were held throughout Europe.

He was likely red-green color blind, resulting in works that exhibited strange colour schemes and off-beat aesthetics. His artist's eye for his handwriting were revealed in the simple artistic and rhythmic leitmotifs embellishing the scribbles, cross-outs, and word layouts of his manuscripts.

Some of Tagore's lyrics corresponded in a synesthetic sense with particular paintings. At twenty he wrote his first drama-opera: Valmiki Pratibha The Genius of Valmiki. Through it Tagore explores a wide range of dramatic styles and emotions, including usage of revamped kirtans and adaptation of traditional English and Irish folk melodies as drinking songs. Another play, Dak Ghar The Post Officedescribes the child Amal defying his stuffy and puerile confines by ultimately "fall[ing] asleep", hinting his physical death.

A story with borderless appeal—gleaning rave reviews in Europe—Dak Ghar dealt with death as, in Tagore's words, "spiritual freedom" from "the world of hoarded wealth and certified creeds". In The King of Children, biographer Betty Jean Lifton suspected that Korczak, agonising over whether one should determine when and how to die, was easing the children into accepting death. In mid-October, the Nazis sent them to Treblinka. The deliverance sought and won by the dying child is the same deliverance which rose before his imagination, [ Yeats, Preface, The Post Office, His other works fuse lyrical flow and emotional rhythm into a tight focus on a core idea, a break from prior Bengali drama.

Tagore sought "the play of feeling and not of action".

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In he released what is regarded as his finest drama: It is an adaptation of Rajarshi, an earlier novella of his. Short stories[ edit ] Tagore began his career in short stories in —when he was only sixteen—with "Bhikharini" "The Beggar Woman". This period was among Tagore's most fecund, yielding more than half the stories contained in the three-volume Galpaguchchha or Golpoguchchho; "Bunch of Stories"which itself is a collection of eighty-four stories.

Tagore typically associated his earliest stories such as those of the "Sadhana" period with an exuberance of vitality and spontaneity; these characteristics were intimately connected with Tagore's life in the common villages of, among others, PatisarShajadpur, and Shilaida while managing the Tagore family's vast landholdings.

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He attempts to distill the sense of longing felt by those long trapped in the mundane and hardscrabble confines of Indian urban life, giving play to dreams of a different existence in the distant and wild mountains: At the very name of another country, my heart would go out to it I would fall to weaving a network of dreams: Its continuing influence on Bengali art and culture cannot be overstated; to this day, it remains a point of cultural reference, and has furnished subject matter for numerous successful films and theatrical plays, and its characters are among the most well known to Bengalis.

This famous story has an autobiographical element to it, modelled to some extent on the relationship between Tagore and his sister-in-law, Kadambari Devi. Ray has also made memorable films of other stories from Galpaguchchha, including Samapti, Postmaster and Monihara, bundling them together as Teen Kanya "Three Daughters".

Atithi is another poignantly lyrical Tagore story which was made into a film of the same name by another noted Indian film director Tapan Sinha. Tarapada, a young Brahmin boy, catches a boat ride with a village zamindar. It turns out that he has run away from his home and has been wandering around ever since. The zamindar adopts him, and finally arranges a marriage to his own daughter. The night before the wedding Tarapada runs away again. Strir Patra The letter from the wife was one of the earliest depictions in Bengali literature of bold emancipation of women.

Mrinal is the wife of a typical Bengali middle class man. The letter, written while she is traveling which constitutes the whole storydescribes her petty life and struggles. She finally declares that she will not return to her patriarchical home, stating Amio bachbo. Ei bachlum "And I shall live. In Haimanti, Tagore takes on the institution of Hindu marriage.

He describes the dismal lifelessness of Bengali women after they are married off, hypocrisies plaguing the Indian middle class, and how Haimanti, a sensitive young woman, must — due to her sensitiveness and free spirit — sacrifice her life.

In the last passage, Tagore directly attacks the Hindu custom of glorifying Sita 's attempted self-immolation as a means of appeasing her husband Rama 's doubts as depicted in the epic Ramayana. In Musalmanir Golpo, Tagore also examines Hindu- Muslim tensions, which in many ways embodies the essence of Tagore's humanism.

On the other hand, Darpaharan exhibits Tagore's self-consciousness, describing a young man harboring literary ambitions. Though he loves his wife, he wishes to stifle her literary career, deeming it unfeminine.

Tagore himself, in his youth, seems to have harbored similar ideas about women. Darpaharan depicts the final humbling of the man via his acceptance of his wife's talents. Jibito o Mrito, as with many other Tagore stories, provides the Bengalis with one of their more widely used epigrams: Kadombini moriya proman korilo she more nai "Kadombini died, thereby proved that she hadn't".

Among Tagore's works, his novels are among the least-acknowledged. Ghare Baire or The Home and the World, which was also released as the film by Satyajit Ray Ghare Baireexamines rising nationalistic feeling among Indians while warning of its dangers, clearly displaying Tagore's distrust of nationalism — especially when associated with a religious element.

In some sense, Gora shares the same theme, raising questions regarding the Indian identity. As with Ghare Baire, matters of self-identity, personal freedom, and religious belief are developed in the context of an involving family story and a love triangle. Shesher Kobita translated twice, as Last Poem and as Farewell Song is his most lyrical novel, containing as it does poems and rhythmic passages written by the main character a poet.

Nevertheless, it is also Tagore's most satirical novel, exhibiting post-modernist elements whereby several characters make gleeful attacks on the reputation of an old, outmoded, oppressively-renowned poet named Rabindranath Tagore.