Population stratification is an important potential confounder of genetic case‐ control association studies. For replication studies, limited. We observed the strongest BMI association for the FTO SNP Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are currently a main .. View Article; Google Scholar Qi L, Cornelis MC, Kraft P, Stanya KJ, Linda Kao WH, Pankow JS, et al. . An integrated map of genetic variation from 1, human genomes. Winsor H. The evidences of the association in dissected cadavers of visceral disease with vertebral .. types of joints - Google Search Synovial Joint, Musculoskeletal System, Joints In The Body . Underskin: The Human Subway Map Infographics and Data Visualization Sam Loman. Pablo .. Linda Davis . Mirel Garcia.
At least one of the first jaw and the second jaw is movable relative to the other jaw. At least a portion of the rivet is removably positioned within the rivet cavity. The rivet comprises a tissue-engaging portion, an elongate portion extending from the tissue-engaging portion, and a meltable portion.
The end-effector assembly comprises a driver configured to move the rivet between a first position in which the rivet is stored at least partially within the rivet cavity and a second position in which the rivet is at least partially deployed from the rivet cavity.
The meltable portion of the rivet is positioned against or adjacent to the electrode when the rivet is in the second position. Description FIELD The present disclosure is generally directed to surgical instruments and, more particularly, is directed to surgical fastening devices comprising rivets. One method of sealing tissue relies upon the application of energy, such as electrical energy, for example, to tissue captured or clamped within an end effector or an end-effector assembly of a surgical instrument in order to cause thermal effects within the tissue.
Black Freedom Struggle in the Urban North - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History
Various mono-polar and bi-polar radio frequency Rf surgical instruments and surgical techniques have been developed for such purposes. In general, the delivery of Rf energy to the captured tissue can elevate the temperature of the tissue and, as a result, the energy can at least partially denature proteins within the tissue.
Such proteins, like collagen, for example, can be denatured into a proteinaceous amalgam that intermixes and fuses, or seals, together as the proteins renature. Many fortunes in banking, textiles, and shipping up North were built on the backs of unfree African American labor. Cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia rose to economic power because of the trade in slaves and the products of plantations in the South and Caribbean, particularly cotton.
In the French political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville observed that in the North the white no longer clearly perceives the barrier that is supposed to separate him from this debased race, and he shuns the Negro all the more assiduously for fear that he might one day become indistinguishable from him. Even in those northern states that had abolished or prohibited slavery, Tocqueville observed that the Negro is free, but he cannot share the rights, pleasures, labors, or sorrows—not even the tomb of him whose equal he has been declared to be.
There is no place where the two can come together, whether in life or death. Black and white anti-slavery activists participated in the Underground Railroad, resisted Fugitive Slave Laws, and valiantly fought the Confederacy. In some states, under pressure by civil rights activists, legislatures abolished racially separate schools and extended voting rights to African American men during the decades preceding and immediately following the Civil War.
During Reconstruction, several northern states passed laws forbidding discrimination by race in public education and public accommodations. As late asnearly nine out of ten African Americans still lived in the South, and large sections of states outside the old Confederacy had few, if any, non-whites.
US20120016413A1 - Surgical fastening devices comprising rivets - Google Patents
Most northern blacks were concentrated in a handful of large cities, notably Philadelphia and New York. Those patterns changed profoundly with the Great Migration — of African Americans northward. More than six million African Americans left the South in search of economic opportunities in burgeoning northern industries. Some fled the declining southern agricultural economy.
Others were refugees from widespread racial violence. During the first decades of the 20th century, dozens of race riots broke out in northern towns and cities, always instigated by whites threatened by growing black populations.
Those riots peaked in times of social and economic instability. Members of the Klan gained political power throughout the North.
In Detroit, a Klansman lost the mayoral election on technicalities in a city riven by racial tensions. The same year as the near-KKK victory, whites attacked the house of Ossian Sweet, an African American doctor who moved into a white neighborhood.
Swimming pools, roller rinks, dance halls, bowling alleys, and amusement parks were strictly segregated by race. In some cities, public swimming facilities sometimes admitted African Americans on a segregated basis, usually on the day before pools were emptied, cleaned, and refilled. For the first third of the 20th century, most black men held service jobs, serving as janitors, maintenance men, barbers, and cooks.
The vast majority of African American women in the paid workforce in the North through the Great Depression worked as domestics, cooks, or laundry workers.
Others worked in informal jobs, ranging from prostitution to numbers running. Few blacks found work in the skilled building trades. Retail jobs that required interaction with white customers were closed to African Americans. Even fewer found white-collar positions. Even African Americans with professional degrees, including doctors, engineers, and lawyers, found it nearly impossible to find work in white-owned businesses or major corporations until the s.
In Chicago, black men found work on the killing floors of meatpacking plants. In major steel-producing cities, including Chicago, Gary, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh, black workers generally toiled in the unbearable heat of foundries, pouring molten iron and stoking furnaces with coke, a form of processed coal. In the auto industry, blacks were confined to maintenance jobs or hazardous jobs such as engine lifting and car-body painting.
Many employers hired black workers to replace white workers who were on strike and in the process fueled racial resentment by whites who believed that African Americans were stealing their jobs. Other firms instituted a strict system of racial segregation on the shop floor or assembly line, refusing to place black workers in white jobs. Whether as domestics and cooks or assembly line workers, African Americans were almost always paid less than their white counterparts.
They were the first to be laid off during economic downturns and the last to be hired. Even companies that employed African American workers often did so as a last resort, particularly during periods of labor shortages, including World War I and World War II. Black workers regularly complained of being turned away when they applied for jobs, even as employers continued to hire whites.
Most unions in the American Federation of Labor AFLwhich was dominated by skilled labors, regularly endorsed racially discriminatory practices. Construction unions favored the sons, brothers, and relatives of their members, who were usually all white.
Even in some of the most racially progressive unions, such as the autoworkers, electrical workers, and steelworkers, blacks were trapped in unskilled jobs and seldom, if ever, were hired or promoted to well-paying skilled jobs.
Racial segregation was not commonplace in the North before the Great Migration. In his pathbreaking study of Philadelphia the northern city with the largest black population at the end of the 19th centuryW. Du Bois found that blacks and whites lived in close proximity to each other.
Later historians writing about Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and New York noted that African Americans tended to live in poor and working-class neighborhoods that were racially and ethnically heterogeneous.
Nearly every new home built in white neighborhoods between and included racial restrictions in home titles, deeds, and rental agreements. New government agencies the Home Owners Loan Corporation, created in ; the Federal Housing Administration, inthe Federal Home Loan Bank Board in ; and the Veterans Administration, inpromoted home ownership by guaranteeing affordable home loans and mortgages.
As a result of the loosening of credit, rates of homeownership skyrocketed in the United States. But federally backed loans and mortgages were generally unavailable to African Americans.
The Home Owners Loan Corporation HOLCcollaborating with local bankers and real estate brokers, prepared maps that ranked neighborhoods to determine the eligibility of properties for federally guaranteed mortgages and home loans. Any neighborhood with even a handful of African Americans, unless they were live-in domestic servants, received a D rating.
Because African Americans did not have access to conventional mortgages, they had to resort to various forms of predatory lending, most commonly contract buying, which had high interest rates and substantial monthly charges. The majority of blacks in northern cities were trapped in rental housing, often in deteriorating neighborhoods.
But even states where school segregation was forbidden by law, such statutes were seldom honored. Some districts even required African Americans students to play in separate playgrounds. In bigger cities, school attendance zones tended to correspond with racially segregated neighborhoods. When the African American population expanded, school districts usually redrew or gerrymandered school boundaries to ensure that schools remained racially heterogeneous.
Most districts also refused to hire African American teachers, except to teach African American students. Black teachers were almost always paid less than their white counterparts. Northern police forces were usually all white or nearly all white through the early s.
Urban African Americans were deeply distrustful of the police and mostly for good reason. White police officers regularly targeted blacks who ventured into white neighborhoods. They regularly harassed, threatened, and beat black suspects and arrestees.
When whites attacked the homes of the first African Americans to move into formerly all-white neighborhoods, the police usually turned a blind eye to window breaking, arson, and other vandalism. They seldom investigated racial incidents. And they usually refused to uphold laws that forbade racial discrimination in public places. Police regularly arrested African Americans who refused to give up their seats at white-only restaurants, even in states where such segregation was illegal.
Instead, they often charged black protestors with disturbing the peace, trespassing, or resisting arrest. Even when the police were accused of negligence, harassment, or brutality, they were usually immune from discipline and seldom faced criminal charges. White judges and juries usually sympathized with the police and refused to convict uniformed officers of wrongdoing.
Black-run institutions, including churches, civic clubs, fraternities and sororities, social service organizations, trade unions, and cultural organizations thrived in densely packed African American districts. So-called race businesses provided goods and services that whites would not provide to blacks. The concentration of population fostered a sense of community consciousness and became the basis for political organization and grassroots resistance to discrimination and segregation.
Unlike in the South, where only a small percentage of blacks had the right to vote, northern blacks faced fewer obstacles to political participation. African Americans in northern cities used the power of the ballot box to gain patronage jobs and political recognition. In states where the electorate was closely divided between Democrats and Republicans, white politicians heeded the demands of their black constituents as a matter of political expediency.
By the mids, however, urban blacks increasingly cast their political lot with the Democratic Party, largely because they benefited from New Deal social programs. Still, enough African American voters remained in the party of Lincoln through the s to attract the attention of politicians of both parties.
By mid-century, nearly all the largest northern cities, led by Chicago, had elected at least a few African Americans to office, including to school boards, city councils, state legislatures, and the US House of Representatives.
This progress has led to the integration of genomic sequencing in clinical care, especially for the diagnosis of rare genetic disease Bamshad et al.
In the past few years, large national and international efforts Manolio et al. In parallel, many large regional and national biobank efforts Collins and Varmus, ; Ashley, ; Collins, are underway to enable the broad integration of genomics in health systems for genetic identification of disease Dewey et al. Such efforts have recently revealed clinically actionable variants Dewey et al.
The increased promulgation of genomics in health systems represents an opportunity to improve diagnostic sensitivity for more precise therapeutic intervention and better health outcomes Ashley, Despite this progress, most genetic diseases are still under-diagnosed Abul-Husn et al.
A number of barriers exist for wholesale genetic testing and diagnoses, including incomplete standardized guidelines for interpreting genetic evidence of disease Amendola et al.
The latter is a particularly pernicious problem in non-European populations due to systematic biases in large genomic and clinical databases Popejoy and Fullerton, ; Petrovski and Goldstein, These challenges have led several research groups to attempt to genetically identify disease by examining patient health patterns using data from the Electronic Health Record EHR Gottesman et al. EHRs have been used to clinically characterize well-known genetic disorders, but have been of limited success for the vast cadre of less-characterized or unknown disorders Blair et al.
USA1 - Surgical fastening devices comprising rivets - Google Patents
The gold standard of genetic disorder diagnosis involves testing both patient and family members to confirm Mendelian segregation of the suspected underlying pathogenic variant ClinGen et al.
However, as genomic data becomes more ubiquitous in health systems, it can be used to detect genetic relationships in the absence of known family and pedigree information. Specifically, components of pedigrees can be uncovered within the general population; particularly those that have experienced recent founder effects. Pairs of individuals who are related share genetic homology in the form of long genomic haplotypes.
These haplotypes are considered to be identical-by-descent IBD if they are inherited from a common ancestor without any intervening recombination.
The Black Freedom Struggle in the Urban North
However, when IBD sharing does occur, the length of an IBD segment can remain long even between distantly related individuals. Detection of IBD haplotypes can allow for the identification of distantly related patients with a genetic disorder driven by a locus inherited from a founding ancestor who brought the disease mutation into a population Houwen et al.
This is the principle underlying population-scale disease mapping approaches that combine IBD sharing and statistical association to discover novel disease loci, so called IBD-mapping.