What is a carbon footprint - definition | Time for change
WebMD's Prostate Anatomy Page provides detailed images, definitions, and information about the prostate. Learn about its function, parts. That's what Spencer B. Olmstead and his colleagues found when they asked college students about the use of pornography in future romantic relationships. A collection of the best parenting quotes to inspire and remind parents of the critical role we play in parenting our children.
It just means that they will walk away from you. If you must give them a pair, make sure they give you money in exchange. Even a 25 cent coin is enough to counteract the curse. This also means that you will eventually split up. The reason will depend on what actually split you up — whether a person passing between you or an object.
This means that people left behind will not get married. If a spoon falls, a woman will come.
John Dewey: The School and Society: Chapter 2: The School and the Life of the Child
If a fork falls, a man will arrive. It will give them financial luck. It will bring you bad luck. Do not blink when looking at a Balete Tree.
You will get haunted by ghosts. Red cars are the most prone to car accidents. Involving Funerals There are a lot of these in the Philippines. You will bring bad spirits with you. In the Philippines, it is common to offer visitors food at a funeral.
Taking them home will also invite bad spirits. It is forbidden to escort them out of the funeral.
This will cut the cycle of bad luck that may haunt your family. To prevent anyone else from dying in the family, you need to carry a young child over the coffin. They say that you will grow taller. The child has not much instinct for abstract inquiry. The instinct of investigation seems to grow out of the combination of the constructive impulse with the 60 conversational. There is no distinction between experimental science for little children and the work done in the carpenter shop.
Such work as they can do in physics or chemistry is not for the purpose of making technical generalizations or even arriving at abstract truths.
Children simply like to do things, and watch to see what will happen. But this can be taken advantage of, can be directed into ways where it gives results of value, as well as be allowed to go on at random.
And so the expressive impulse of the children, the art instinct, grows also out of the communicating and constructive instincts. It is their refinement and full manifestation. Make the construction adequate, make it full, free, and flexible, give it a social motive, something to tell, and you have a work of art. Take one illustration of this in connection with the textile work -- sewing and weaving. The children made a primitive loom in the shop; here the constructive instinct was appealed to.
Then they wished to do something with this loom, to make something. It was the type of the Indian loom, and they were shown blankets woven by the Indians. Each child made a design kindred in idea to those of the Navajo blankets, and the one which seemed best adapted to the work in hand was selected. The technical resources were limited, but the coloring and form 61 were worked out by the children.
The example shown was made by the twelve-year-old children. Examination shows that it took patience, thoroughness, and perseverance to do the work.
Non-monogamy showed me what it really means to be with someone
It involved not merely discipline and information of both a historical sort and the elements of technical design, but also something of the spirit of art in adequately conveying an idea. One more instance of the connection of the art side with the constructive side. The children had been studying primitive spinning and carding, when one of them, twelve years of age, made a picture of one of the older children spinning. Here is another piece of work which is not quite average; it is better than the average.
It is an illustration of two hands and the drawing out of the wool to get it ready for spinning. This was done by a child eleven years of age. But, upon the whole, with the younger children especially, the art impulse is connected mainly with the social instinct -- the desire to tell, to represent. Now, keeping in mind these fourfold interests -- the interest in conversation or communication; in inquiry, or finding out things; in making things, or construction; and in artistic expression -- we may say they are the natural resources, the uninvested capital, upon the exercise of which depends the active growth of the child.
I wish to give one or two illustrations, the first from the 62 work of children seven years of age. It illustrates in a way the dominant desire of the children to talk, particularly about folks end of things in relation to folks.
If you observe little children, you will find they are interested in the world of things mainly in its connection with people, as a background and medium of human concerns. Many anthropologists have told us there are certain identities in the child interests with those of primitive life. There is a sort or natural recurrence of the child mind to the typical activities of primitive peoples; witness the hut which the boy likes to build in the yard, playing hunt, with bows, arrows, spears, and so on.
Again the question comes: What are we to do with this interest -- are we to ignore it, or just excite and draw it out? Or shall we get hold of it and direct it to something ahead, something better? Some of the work that has been planned for our seven-year-old children has the latter end in view -- to utilize this interest so that it shall become a n.
The children begin by imagining present conditions taken away until they are in contact with nature at first hand. That takes them back to a hunting people, to a people living in caves or trees and getting a precarious subsistence by hunting and fishing.
They imagine as far as possible the various natural 63 physical conditions adapted to that sort of life; say, a hilly, woody slope, near mountains and a river where fish would be abundant.
Then they go on in imagination through the hunting to the semi-agricultural stage, and through the nomadic to the settled agricultural stage. The point I wish to make is that there is abundant opportunity thus given for actual study, for inquiry which results in gaining information.
So, while the instinct primarily appeals to the social side, the interest of the child in people and their doings is carried on into the larger world of reality.
For example, the children had some idea of primitive weapons, of the stone arrowhead, etc. That provided occasion for the testing of materials as regards their friability, their shape, texture, etc. The discussion of the iron age supplied a demand for the construction of a smelting oven made out of clay, and of considerable size.
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- A John Dewey source page
As the children did not get their drafts right at first, the mouth of the furnace not being in proper relation to the vent, as to size and position, instruction in the principles of combustion, the nature of drafts and of fuel, was required. Yet the instruction was not given ready-made; it was first needed, and then arrived at experimentally. Then the children 64 took some material, such as copper, and went through a series of experiments, fusing it, working it into objects; and the same experiments were made with lead and other metals.
This work has been also a continuous course in geography, since the children have had to imagine and work out the various physical conditions necessary to the different forms of social life implied.
What would be the physical conditions appropriate to pastoral life? What would be the natural method of exchange between these peoples, Having worked out such points in conversation, they have afterward represented them in maps and sand-molding. Thus they have gained ideas of the various forms of the configuration of the earth, and at the same time have seen them in their relation to human activity- so that they are not simply external facts, but are fused and welded with social conceptions regarding the life and progress of humanity.
The result, to my mind, justifies completely the conviction that children, in a year of such work of five hours a week altogetherget indefinitely more acquaintance with facts of science, geography, and anthropology than they get where information is the professed end and object, where they are simply set to learning facts in fixed lessons.
As to discipline, they get more training of attention, 65 more power of interpretation, of drawing inferences, of acute observation and continuous reflection, than if they were put to working out arbitrary problems simply for the sake of discipline.
I should like at this point to refer to the recitation. We all know what it has been -- a placer where the child shows off to the teacher and the other children the amount of information he has succeeded in assimilating from the text-book. From this other standpoint, the recitation becomes preeminently: The recitation becomes the social clearing-house, where experiences and ideas are exchanged and subjected to criticism, where misconceptions are corrected, and new lines of thought and inquiry are set up.
This change of the recitation from an examination of knowledge already acquired to the free play of the children's communicative instinct, affects and modifies all the language work of the school. Under the old regime it was unquestionably a most serious problem to give the children a full and free use of language. The reason was obvious.
The natural motive for language was seldom offered. In the pedagogical text-books language is defined as the medium of expressing thought. It becomes 66 that, more or less, to adults with trained minds, but it hardly needs to be said that language is primarily a social thing, a means by which we give our experiences to others and get theirs again in return.
When it is taken from its natural basis, it is no wonder that it becomes a complex and difficult problem to teach language. Think of the absurdity of having to teach language as a thing by itself. If there is anything the child will do before he goes to school, it is to talk of the things that interest him. But when there are no vital interests appealed to in the school, when language is used simply- for the repetition of lessons, it is not surprising that one of the chief difficulties of school work has come to be instruction in the mother-tongue.
Since the language taught is unnatural, not growing out of the real desire to communicate vital impressions and convictions, the freedom of children in its use gradually disappears, until finally the high-school teacher has to invent all kinds of devices to assist in getting any spontaneous and full use of speech. Moreover, when the language instinct is appealed to in a social way, there is a continual contact with reality.
The result is that the child always has something in his mind to talk about, he has something to say; he has a thought to express, and a thought is not a thought unless it is one's own. On the traditional method, 67 the child must say something that he has merely learned. There is all the difference in the world between having something to say and having to say something. The child who has a variety of materials and facts wants to talk about them, and his language becomes more refined and full, because it is controlled and informed by realities.
Reading and writing, as well as the oral use of language, may be taught on this basis. It can be done in a related way, as the outgrowth of the child's social desire to recount his experiences and get in return the experiences of others, directed always through contact with the facts and forces which determine the truth communicated I shall not have time to speak of the work of the older children, where the original crude instincts of construction and communication have been developed into something like scientifically directed inquiry, but I will give an illustration of the use of language following upon this experimental work.
The work was on the basis of a simple experiment of the commonest sort, gradually leading the children out into geological and geographical study.
The sentences that I am going to read seem to me poetic as well as "scientific. One them was carbon dioxide. The steam became clouds, because the earth began to cool off, and after awhile it began to rain, and the water came down and dissolved the carbon dioxide from the air. It represents some three months of work on the part of the child.
The children kept daily and weekly records, but this is part of the summing up of the quarter's work. I call this language poetic, because the child has a clear image and has a personal feeling for the realities imaged.
I extract sentences from two other records to illustrate further the vivid use of language when there is a vivid experience back of it. Then the carbon dioxide and water united and formed a solution, and, as it ran, it tore out the calcium and carried it on to the sea, where there were little animals who took it out of solution.
I will simply mention the experiment in which the work began. It consisted in making precipitated chalk, used for polishing metals. The children, with simple apparatus -- a tumbler, lime water, and a glass tube -- precipitated the calcium carbonate out of the water; and from this beginning went on to a study of the processes by which rocks of various sorts, igneous, sedimentary, etc.
The children saw and felt the connection between these geologic processes taking place ages and ages ago, and the physical conditions determining the industrial occupations of today. Of all the possibilities involved in the subject, " The School and the Life of the Child," I have selected but one' because I have found that that 70 one gives people more difficulty, is more of stumbling-block, than any other.
One may be ready to admit that it would be most desirable for the school to be a place in which the child should really live, and get a life-experience in which he should delight and find meaning for its own sake. But then we hear this inquiry: Yes, it has come to this, that with many, if not most, people the normal processes of life appear to be incompatible with getting information and discipline.
So I have tried to indicate, in a highly general and inadequate way for only the school itself, in its daily operation, could give a detailed and worthy representationhow the problem works itself out -- how it is possible to lay hold upon the rudimentary instincts of human nature, and, by supplying a proper medium, so control their expression as not only to facilitate and enrich the growth of the individual child, but also to supply the results, and far more, of technical information and discipline that have been the ideals of education in the past.
But although I have selected this especial way of approach as a concession to the question almost universally raisedI am not willing to leave the matter in this more or less negative and 71 explanatory condition. Life is the great thing after all; the life of the child at its time and in its measure, no less than the life of the adult.
Strange would it be, indeed, if intelligent and serious attention to what the child now needs and is capable of in the way of a rich, valuable, and expanded life should somehow conflict with the needs and possibilities of later, adult life. If we seek the kingdom of heaven, educationally, all other things shall be added unto us -- which, being interpreted, is that if we identify ourselves with the real instincts and needs of childhood, and ask only after its fullest assertion and growth, the discipline and information and culture of adult life shall all come in their due season.
Speaking of culture reminds me that in a way I have been speaking only of the outside of the child's activity -- only of the outward expression of his impulses toward saying, making, finding out, and creating. The real child, it hardly need be said, lives in the world of imaginative values, and ideas which find only imperfect outward embodiment.
We hear much nowadays about 72 the cultivation of the child's " imagination. Why are we so hard of heart and so slow to believe? The imagination is the medium in which the child lives. To him there is everywhere and in everything that occupies his mind and activity at all, a surplusage of value and significance.
The question of the relation of the school to the child's life is at bottom simply this: If we once believe in life and in the life of the child, then will all the occupations and uses spoken of, then will all history and science, become instruments of appeal and materials of culture to his imagination, and through that to the richness and the orderliness of his life.
Where we now see only the outward doing and the outward product, there, behind all visible results, is the re-adjustment of mental attitude, the enlarged and sympathetic vision, the sense of growing power, and the willing ability to identify both insight and capacity with the interests of the world and 73 man.
Unless culture be a superficial polish, a veneering of mahogany over common wood, it surely is this -- the growth of the imagination in flexibility, in scope, and in sympathy, till the life which the individual lives is informed with the life of nature and of society.
When nature and society can live in the schoolroom, when the forms and tools of learning are subordinated to the substance of experience, then shall there be an opportunity for this identification, and culture shall be the democratic password. The original published version of this document is in the public domain.
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