# Music relationship to math

### The Connection Between Music and Mathematics | Kent State Online Master of Music in Music Education

Music theory has no axiomatic foundation in modern mathematics, yet the basis of musical . Because we are often interested in the relations or ratios between the pitches (known as intervals) rather than the precise pitches themselves in. It is known that many mathematicians play some instrument. Also there are books about music which use a lot of mathematics in order to express music. From the rich complexity of the Bach fugues to the catchy songs of the Beatles, music and mathematics overlap in all kinds of interesting ways.

Discrete mathematics The pitch continuum is, well, continuous, but tuning systems and scales are discrete. The voice, fretless stringed instruments and trombones produce continuous pitches.

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Keyboards, fretted string instruments and saxophones produce discrete pitches. This is great intuitive preparation for the concepts of discrete vs continuous generally.

For example, you can investigate the mathematical relationship between the circle of fifths and the circle of half-steps.

Fractal self-similarity is probably one of the defining pleasures of good music in general. Some speculation My experiences in both music and math have convinced me that music is a severely underutilized resource for math teaching.

There are many ways to learn besides manipulating symbols on a page or computer screen. In his book AnathemNeal Stephenson imagines monks solving proofs and running cellular automata by chanting melodies that evolve by systematic rules. When I was trying to learn how wrap my head around binary numbers, I eventually just wrote a song that counts in binary from one to sixty-four and back down.

It works great, and also turns out to be a highly relaxing and meditative exercise. The tempering can involve either the irregularities of well temperament or be constructed as a regular temperamenteither some form of equal temperament or some other regular meantone, but in all cases will involve the fundamental features of meantone temperament.

For example, the root of chord ii, if tuned to a fifth above the dominant, would be a major whole tone 9: If tuned a just minor third 6: Meantone temperament reduces the difference between 9: Equal temperament tunings[ edit ] In equal temperamentthe octave is divided into equal parts on the logarithmic scale.

While it is possible to construct equal temperament scale with any number of notes for example, the tone Arab tone systemthe most common number is 12, which makes up the equal-temperament chromatic scale. In western music, a division into twelve intervals is commonly assumed unless it is specified otherwise.

For the chromatic scale, the octave is divided into twelve equal parts, each semitone half-step is an interval of the twelfth root of two so that twelve of these equal half steps add up to exactly an octave. With fretted instruments it is very useful to use equal temperament so that the frets align evenly across the strings. In the European music tradition, equal temperament was used for lute and guitar music far earlier than for other instruments, such as musical keyboards.

### What is the relationship between music and math? | The Ethan Hein Blog

Because of this historical force, twelve-tone equal temperament is now the dominant intonation system in the Western, and much of the non-Western, world. Equally tempered scales have been used and instruments built using various other numbers of equal intervals.

The 19 equal temperamentfirst proposed and used by Guillaume Costeley in the 16th century, uses 19 equally spaced tones, offering better major thirds and far better minor thirds than normal semitone equal temperament at the cost of a flatter fifth. The overall effect is one of greater consonance.

## Music and mathematics

Twenty-four equal temperamentwith twenty-four equally spaced tones, is widespread in the pedagogy and notation of Arabic music. However, in theory and practice, the intonation of Arabic music conforms to rational ratiosas opposed to the irrational ratios of equally tempered systems.

These neutral seconds, however, vary slightly in their ratios dependent on maqamas well as geography.