(PCRI™) Parent-Child Relationship Inventory™ | WPS
Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI). Manual. Los Angeles Items and scoring instructions are included in the WPS. Autoscore Answer. The Parent–Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI) is one of the most used . representation, and administration of goods, based on the principle of All the procedures were performed on data analysis software IBM SPSS Child Anxiety Scale—Parent Form. Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale. . items yielding 6 clinical scales: anxiety, depression, anger, posttraumatic stress, dissoci- ation, and sexual concerns. .. and to evaluate parent education programs.
The causes of parents' failure to use their authority in a family group are numerous; nevertheless, substance abuse, psychological problems, being too young, marital discord, occupational problems, and insufficient parenting skills.
Parent - Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI)
Whatever the cause of defective parental authority in the family group is, it may predispose to violence in children particularly when it involves neglect or abuse or violence modeled through the spousal or parental relationships and thus children will incorporate violence in their behaviors 8. In such cases, adolescents are predisposed to adjustment disorders, including delinquency or psychological problems 3. Studies suggest that the cohesiveness of the family effectively anticipates the frequency of delinquent behavior in non-traditional families 89.
As discussed earlier, one of the family factors that impact delinquency is parenting skills. Also, parenting skills has been identified as the best predictors of criminal behavior among other family traits 2514 Parenting styles could be referred to as patterns of behavior that principal caregivers use to communicate with their children Baumrind discussed demanding and responsiveness as two independent measures of parenting skills Demanding describes the level that parents display control, power assertion, maturity, and directing.
Responsiveness identifies the level that parents would display their warmth, emotional expression, approval and support towards their children. On the basis of the level of parental demanding and responsiveness, four parenting styles have already been identified: Harsh and irregular parenting is a key cause of conduct disorders 5 Some specific styles of parenting are shown to precipitate delinquency among adolescents which include too strong control, parental disharmony, rejection of the child and insufficient engagement in the child's actions The neglected adolescent is highly likely to become a drug abuser, tough criminal, aggressive, restive, thief, cultist, rapist, etc.
Several research studies have been performed on the factors which affect juvenile delinquency, nevertheless still a gap exists regarding the precursor familial factors such as family power structures which affect delinquency.
Thus, we tried to investigate this subject further. Objectives Based on the above background, the current study aims to compare family power structure and parent-child relationship quality between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in Tehran.
Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI)
Patients and Methods 3. Participants and Study Design This study was conducted in in Tehran; the present study is a causal-comparative study. The sample consisted of two groups: The delinquent group were selected through the convenience sampling method from the Tehran Juvenile Correction and Rehabilitation Centers.
The inclusion criteria were as follow: Age ranged between 15 and 18 years, Any levels of reading and writing ability were considered, Without any severe mental and physical illnesses, Living with both birth parents. Sociodemographic Data Sheet A sociodemographic data sheet was used to record personal information of the delinquent adolescents including age, education, birth order and the personal information of the mother and father of the adolescent including age, education and job type. Child—Parents Relationship Inventory The basic form of this questionnaire was designed by Fine et al.
This inventory is a 24 item self-report measure that focuses on the adolescents and their relationships with their parents. The parent-child relationship test includes two forms: The Cronbach alpha reliability for subscale of father is between 0.
The Cronbach alpha reliabilities for the Persian version of the scale are reported as well: Family Power Structure This questionnaire was designed by Saidian The test authors did include separate norms for mothers and fathers.
Boothroyd reports the following reliability data. Internal consistency ranges from. Additionally, Boothroyd provides information on two studies which were conducted to measure the test-retest reliability of the PCRI.
On the first study, in which the test was conducted a second time after a one-week interval, test-retest reliability was estimated in the range of.
In a second study, in which the tests were conducted five months apart, the test-retest reliability results were lower, ranging from. Most of the reviewers found that the reliability data indicate that the PCRI is a sound measure. Reviewers differ on their opinions of the validity data.
According to Boothroyd"A large initial pool of items reviewed by expert judges combined with a multistep item selection process during scale development should ensure the PCRI has sufficient content validity.
They also suggest that "the validity of a standardized parenting score is questionable. Such research was conducted by Coffman et al.
The purpose of their study was to "investigate the reliability of the PCRI and its validity as a measure of interactions and relationships mothers and fathers have with their adolescents" Coffman et al.
The study was conducted with participants of the Fullerton Longitudinal Study FLSwhich began in with one-year-olds. The FLS was conducted at six-month intervals until the children reached age 5.
Then the study was conducted annually. When the children reached ages 15 and 16, the parents completed the PCRI in order to assess the parents' attitude about parenting and the parent-child relationship Coffman et al.
The study found that internal consistency was acceptable at least. The study found convergent validity within informant with the FES.
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The study also found that mothers' reports corresponded more significantly than did fathers' reports as compared to the adolescents' responses. Therefore, Coffman et al. All scales revealed acceptable levels of internal consistency except the Communication scale for mothers and the Autonomy scale for both parents ; 1-year temporal stability coefficients were significant and reached moderate-to-strong magnitudes for all scales; With respect to convergent validity, parent reports on the PCRI predicted their impressions of family climate assessed one year later; and When individual parent-child dyads were examined, cross informant data demonstrated that PCRI scores related concurrently and predictively to adolescents' perceptions of the quality of their relationships with their mothers, but not with their fathers p.
This author found several studies in which the PCRI was used to measure results. Schroeder and Kelley conducted a study which examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD.
The study used the PCRI to assess the parents' relationships toward their children. A study conducted by Suchman and Luthar used the PCRI to determine parenting dimensions of autonomy, involvement, and limit-setting in mothers who were experiencing addiction. Suchman and Luthar concluded that the assessment demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, and that the "PCRI has demonstrated good predictive validity based on its moderate correlations with the Personality Inventory for Children" p.
A final study conducted by Ijzendoorn et al.