1 School of Psychology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, . (the Relationship Questionnaire) and parental and peer group attachment ( the . Relationships Questionnaire (RQ) (Bartholomew & Horowitz, ). included were the Relationship Questionnaire developed by Bartholomew and conducted under the supervision of Dr. Chris G. Richardson in the School of parenting and how the child responds to their caregiver (Bowlby, ; Self- reported attachment patterns obtained by the RQ are moderately correlated. A number of studies have established that parental attachment strategies . on a scale of 1 to 7 (Relationship Questionnaire, RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, ). government assistance, and 46% of mothers had not completed high school.
Strong collaboration between families and schools can have a beneficial effect on children in both the school and the home settings Sheridan et al. In these cases, it often is necessary for a third party e. In the context of this type of relationship-building consultation, it is advisable that school psychologists assess and monitor the quality of the family-school relationship over time; however, few empirically-supported measures are available for this purpose.
Originally designed for children in preschool through first grade, it was later adapted for use across grades 1 to 5 Manz et al. The FIQ is a parent-report measure that examines the frequency of family involvement in educational activities. In addition, the FIQ is a relatively long scale that takes parents about 10—20 minutes to complete. However, it does not provide an assessment of parent perceptions and only two items on the scale are directed at measuring the quality of the parent-teacher relationship.
This measure has separate versions for completion by parents and teachers. A potential shortcoming is that the measure has items, which can make it challenging to use repeatedly for the purpose of quality improvement or progress monitoring. The multi-informant PTIQ is comprised of 37 items 21 parent-reported items; 16 teacher-reported items loading on six factors: Internal consistency ranges from. For purposes of evaluating the quality of the home-school relationship from the perspective of both parents and teachers, the item Quality of the Parent-Teacher Relationship factor is useful.
When this factor is administered separately from the entire PTIQ as a method for assessing relationship quality, it can be completed by each informant in about a minute, rendering it efficient to use for screening and ongoing progress monitoring. However, to date, research on the Quality of the Parent-Teacher Relationship factor is limited, although studies have shown that this scale has strong internal consistency authors blindedis related to parental perceptions of teacher support with homework authors blindedand is sensitive to change over the course of a family-school intervention for children with ADHD authors blinded.
As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship factor of the PTIQ, with the aim of determining its potential for assessing home-school collaboration.
Specifically, we sought to examine whether a one-factor model combining parent and teacher reports as originally suggested by the authors of the measure was superior to a two-factor model separate parent-report and teacher-report factors for assessing the quality of the home-school relationship.
Also, we examined the relationship of this factor to other measures related to parent involvement in education, including measures of home-based involvement, to determine concurrent validity. A unique aspect of the study is that it was conducted with the parents and teachers of children diagnosed with ADHD.
The cut point for children in grades K or 1 was the 90th percentile, and the cut point for those in grade 2 through 6 was the 85th percentile. Children in grades 2 to 6 also had to score at or above 0. Children with learning disabilities, disruptive behavior disorders, and mild to moderate internalizing disorders that did not require separate treatment were included.
In addition, children were excluded if they had a history of major neurological illness, or a history of suicidal or homicidal behavior or ideation. Data were collected at four points across the intervention. Only data collected at baseline were analyzed in this study.OSHO: About the Relationship Between Children and Parents ...
The racial composition of the sample was as follows: With regard to ethnicity, 8. With regard to ADHD subtype, 6.
Assessing the Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationships for Students with ADHD
The majority of the sample A factor analysis of the PTIQ revealed a Quality of the Parent-Teacher Relationship factor, consisting of 6 parent-reported items as well as 5 teacher-reported items; the results suggested parent- and teacher-rated items should be combined on the same subscale.
Higher scores on this factor reflect a stronger, higher quality relationship Kohl et al. The parents and teachers of all children in the study were administered the relationship quality factor of the PTIQ. Because the larger studies were focused on assessing the quality of interactions between parents and teachers and attempted to minimize respondent burden by limiting the number of measures administered, only the Quality of the Parent-Teacher Relationship factor of the PTIQ was used.
Given the relationship between dimensions of family involvement in educational activities i. The three paragraphs were conceptually linked to the original childhood attachment patterns: Attachment security was defined as a positive self-image and a sense of being worthy of love, combined with a positive expectation that others will be generally accepting and responsive in times of need.
Preoccupation anxious-ambivalence was defined as a negative self-image and a sense of unlovability, combined with a positive evaluation of others in terms of their strength and independence. Two avoidant strategies were defined: Subsequently, numerous researchers in the social psychology tradition argued for the advantage of using dimensional analysis rather than prototype measures when assessing adult attachment.
Note that self-reported attachment styles represent conscious and explicit relational attitudes and, in this way, differ from attachment patterns as assessed by the AAI. The more complex AAI relies on the coder's judgment of the coherence of the discourse during the interview to establish an attachment classification rather than requiring or assuming that attachment attitudes are conscious and can be accurately reported. In addition to assessing explicit relational attitudes, self-report attachment measures such as the RQ have been developed primarily on low-risk, nonclinical student samples.
Based on phrases used by some high-risk parents on the AAI, an additional paragraph was added describing what was labeled a profoundly-distrustful attachment orientation. In the current study, relational attitudes were assessed among a cohort of low-income mothers who had been followed from the first year of the infant's life to child age 20 years.
Fourth, we hypothesized that mothers' profoundly-distrustful attachment style would be positively associated with clinically assessed risk for infant maltreatment 20 years earlier Hypothesis 4.
Participants The participants were 44 low-income mothers who had participated in a previous study of the impact of family risk factors on infant development Lyons-Ruth et al. The participating follow-up sample did not differ from the group lost to follow-up on any of the study variables.
Risk factors characterizing the study sample in infancy included the following: Demographic risk A cumulative demographic risk score was computed by summing the presence of the following five variables collected at the time of the infant study: Maternal behavior was coded in ten 4-min intervals.
Coders were blind to all other data on the families. In the Strange Situation procedure, the infant is observed in a playroom during a series of eight 3-min episodes in which the mother leaves and rejoins the infant twice.
Assessing the Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationships for Students with ADHD
Fifteen randomly selected tapes were coded by two coders to assess reliability. The remaining 20 mothers had no documented mal-treatment or referral at the time of the infant study. The original RQ consists of four paragraphs, each describing an attitude toward relationships in general.
Security is characterized by the following description: I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me.
I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them. Dismissing-avoidance is characterized by the following description: It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.
I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others. Descriptive Data The average demographic risk score in the sample was 2.