The Scope of Chemistry - Chemistry LibreTexts
Organic chemistry obviously has a very close relationship to the biology which supplies Biology is such an enormously wide field that there are hosts of other . Chemistry-Its Interrelations with Other Sciences. Hugh S. Taylor Related Content: Instructional relationships between chemistry and chemical engineering . It is a highly interdisciplinary field that relies on ties to many other sciences. Agricultural chemists may work with the Department of Agriculture.
The most obvious processes are in front of your very eyes, the erosion processes of the rivers, the winds, etc. It is easy enough to understand these, but for every bit of erosion there is an equal amount of something else going on.
Mountains are no lower today, on the average, than they were in the past. There must be mountain-forming processes. You will find, if you study geology, that there are mountain-forming processes and volcanism, which nobody understands but which is half of geology. The phenomenon of volcanoes is really not understood.LiveClasses: Biology - Plant Water Relations
What makes an earthquake is, ultimately, not understood. It is understood that if something is pushing something else, it snaps and will slide—that is all right. But what pushes, and why? The theory is that there are currents inside the earth—circulating currents, due to the difference in temperature inside and outside—which, in their motion, push the surface slightly. Thus if there are two opposite circulations next to each other, the matter will collect in the region where they meet and make belts of mountains which are in unhappy stressed conditions, and so produce volcanoes and earthquakes.
What about the inside of the earth? A great deal is known about the speed of earthquake waves through the earth and the density of distribution of the earth. However, physicists have been unable to get a good theory as to how dense a substance should be at the pressures that would be expected at the center of the earth. In other words, we cannot figure out the properties of matter very well in these circumstances.
We do much less well with the earth than we do with the conditions of matter in the stars. The mathematics involved seems a little too difficult, so far, but perhaps it will not be too long before someone realizes that it is an important problem, and really works it out. The other aspect, of course, is that even if we did know the density, we cannot figure out the circulating currents.
Nor can we really work out the properties of rocks at high pressure. Incidentally, psychoanalysis is not a science: The witch doctor has a theory that a disease like malaria is caused by a spirit which comes into the air; it is not cured by shaking a snake over it, but quinine does help malaria. So, if you are sick, I would advise that you go to the witch doctor because he is the man in the tribe who knows the most about the disease; on the other hand, his knowledge is not science.
How does chemistry relate to other sciences?
Psychoanalysis has not been checked carefully by experiment, and there is no way to find a list of the number of cases in which it works, the number of cases in which it does not work, etc.
The other branches of psychology, which involve things like the physiology of sensation—what happens in the eye, and what happens in the brain—are, if you wish, less interesting. But some small but real progress has been made in studying them.
One of the most interesting technical problems may or may not be called psychology. The central problem of the mind, if you will, or the nervous system, is this: In what way is it different? We do not know where to look, or what to look for, when something is memorized. We do not know what it means, or what change there is in the nervous system, when a fact is learned. This is a very important problem which has not been solved at all. Assuming, however, that there is some kind of memory thing, the brain is such an enormous mass of interconnecting wires and nerves that it probably cannot be analyzed in a straightforward manner.
There is an analog of this to computing machines and computing elements, in that they also have a lot of lines, and they have some kind of element, analogous, perhaps, to the synapse, or connection of one nerve to another. This is a very interesting subject which we have not the time to discuss further—the relationship between thinking and computing machines. It must be appreciated, of course, that this subject will tell us very little about the real complexities of ordinary human behavior.
All human beings are so different. It will be a long time before we get there. We must start much further back. If we could even figure out how a dog works, we would have gone pretty far. Dogs are easier to understand, but nobody yet knows how dogs work.
If they tell him what a frog is, that there are so many molecules, there is a nerve here, etc. If they will tell us, more or less, what the earth or the stars are like, then we can figure it out.
In order for physical theory to be of any use, we must know where the atoms are located. In order to understand the chemistry, we must know exactly what atoms are present, for otherwise we cannot analyze it. That is but one limitation, of course. There is another kind of problem in the sister sciences which does not exist in physics; we might call it, for lack of a better term, the historical question.
How did it get that way? If we understand all about biology, we will want to know how all the things which are on the earth got there. There is the theory of evolution, an important part of biology.
In geology, we not only want to know how the mountains are forming, but how the entire earth was formed in the beginning, the origin of the solar system, etc.
That, of course, leads us to want to know what kind of matter there was in the world. How did the stars evolve? What were the initial conditions? That is the problem of astronomical history. A great deal has been found out about the formation of stars, the formation of elements from which we were made, and even a little about the origin of the universe. There is no historical question being studied in physics at the present time.
Of course they may be, and the moment we find they are, the historical question of physics will be wrapped up with the rest of the history of the universe, and then the physicist will be talking about the same problems as astronomers, geologists, and biologists. Finally, there is a physical problem that is common to many fields, that is very old, and that has not been solved.
It is not the problem of finding new fundamental particles, but something left over from a long time ago—over a hundred years. Nobody in physics has really been able to analyze it mathematically satisfactorily in spite of its importance to the sister sciences.
It is the analysis of circulating or turbulent fluids. If we watch the evolution of a star, there comes a point where we can deduce that it is going to start convection, and thereafter we can no longer deduce what should happen. A few million years later the star explodes, but we cannot figure out the reason. We cannot analyze the weather.
What is the Relationship of Chemistry with Other Sciences?
We do not know the patterns of motions that there should be inside the earth. The simplest form of the problem is to take a pipe that is very long and push water through it at high speed. No one can analyze it from first principles and the properties of water.
If the water flows very slowly, or if we use a thick goo like honey, then we can do it nicely. You will find that in your textbook. What we really cannot do is deal with actual, wet water running through a pipe. That is the central problem which we ought to solve some day, and we have not. But it is true that if we look at a glass of wine closely enough we see the entire universe.
There are the things of physics: What strange array of chemicals are in the wine?
How does chemistry relate to other sciences? | Socratic
How did they come to be? There are the ferments, the enzymes, the substrates, and the products. There in wine is found the great generalization: Nobody can discover the chemistry of wine without discovering, as did Louis Pasteur, the cause of much disease.
How vivid is the claret, pressing its existence into the consciousness that watches it! If our small minds, for some convenience, divide this glass of wine, this universe, into parts—physics, biology, geology, astronomy, psychology, and so on—remember that nature does not know it! So let us put it all back together, not forgetting ultimately what it is for. Let it give us one more final pleasure: How much each sentence in this brief story contains.
Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars—mere globs of gas atoms. But do I see less or more? The vastness of the heavens stretches my imagination—stuck on this carousel my little eye can catch one-million-year-old light.
A vast pattern—of which I am a part—perhaps my stuff was belched from some forgotten star, as one is belching there. Or see them with the greater eye of Palomar, rushing all apart from some common starting point when they were perhaps all together. What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why?
It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined! Why do the poets of the present not speak of it? What men are poets who can speak of Jupiter if he were like a man, but if he is an immense spinning sphere of methane and ammonia must be silent? Many chemists specialize in areas that are combinations of the main disciplines, such as bioinorganic chemistry or physical organic chemistry.
Very early chemists were often motivated mainly by the achievement of a specific goal or product. There was no standard way of naming materials and no periodic table that we could all agree on. It is often difficult to figure out exactly what a particular person was using. However, the science developed over the centuries by trial and error.
He developed the basic ideas about the behavior of gases. He could then describe gases mathematically. Boyle also helped form the idea that small particles could combine to form molecules. Many years later, John Dalton used these ideas to develop the atomic theory.
The field of chemistry began to develop rapidly in the 's.
Joseph Priestley - isolated and characterized several gases: It was later discovered that nitrous oxide "laughing gas" worked as an anesthetic. This gas was used for that purpose for the first time in during a tooth extraction.
Other gases discovered during that time were chlorine, by C. Scheele - and nitrogen, by Antoine Lavoisier - Lavoisier has been considered by many scholars to be the "father of chemistry". Among other accomplishments, he discovered the role of oxygen in combustion and definitively formulated the law of conservation of matter. Chemists continued to discover new compounds in the 's.
The science also began to develop a more theoretical foundation. Industrial Chemistry This branch is responsible for the production of reactive elements in high amounts. Analytic chemistry This branch of chemistry is responsible for the methods of stopping and quantifying an element within a sample. If you are interested, you can further develop this section in The 20 Types of Chemistry and Its Definition.
Relationship of chemistry with other sciences Physical As we said earlier, the major relationship of chemistry is with physics. There is a branch of chemistry, physical chemistry, which is dedicated to studying the phenomena that occur that link the two sciences, since they combine properties of physics and chemistry. Archeology Although it seems a priori that these two sciences have no relation, chemistry is very important for the findings of archeology.
It is necessary to establish evidence to verify the veracity of the findings and of what period they are. Through the carbon 14 test we can accurately obtain a date on which that finding was buried or made. Chemistry determines the composition and structure of cells and tissues, and the reactions that occur within them. It is about doing an analysis of living things that allows us to explain the biological functions that occur within the body.
As the transformations of elements allow the functioning and sustenance of cells. Astronomy The astronomy Is a branch of physics that also relies on chemistry to explain events occurring in outer space, since many of them are based on reactions of chemical compounds.
What is known as astrophysics is the application of chemical methods for the analysis of celestial bodies. Medicine It is necessary to use chemistry to explain the imbalances that occur within the body and make it sick.