Species–area relationship - Wikipedia
The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly Examples of slopes found previously are: for woody plants , The Biology of rarity: the causes and consequences of rare-common differences. This paper proposes a statistical generalized species-area model of species- area relationship (SAR), which is one of the fundamental The curves defined by the GSAM assume a linear predictor function and a .. Connor EF, McCoy ED () The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship. The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly . Examples of slopes found previously are: for woody plants , for land .. resource-based concept for habitat: a butterfly biology viewpoint.
Extinction risks can be related to species traits such as trophic rank, reproductive capacity, and mobility .
The length of the flight period has often been used as a proxy for the reproductive potential in studies of insects and a longer adult activity is related to a larger number of offspring .
A large number of offspring may increase the survival probability of populations in small areas, since it enhances the chances of colonization, successful population establishment, and population recovery . Population persistence can be affected by population size, range size, or other measures of rarity.
Rare or range-restricted species, or species with small average population sizes, may be absent from small or isolated islands because of a reduced ability to colonize otherwise suitable areas  ; alternatively such species may suffer a high extinction risk, because of their often small local populations . Further specialization can be assumed to increase the extinction risk.
Diet and habitat generalists can utilize more resources and take advantage of ephemeral habitats .
Specialized species may be more sensitive to environmental change i. Body size has often been used as a proxy for mobility in studies of insects and a larger size may increase the persistence of populations in small and isolated areas because of an expected high mobility. However, the relationship between mobility and body size often seems to be rather weak or statistically insignificant .
In contrast, the opposite may also be true, since larger species have higher energy needs and larger area requirements, which could reduce their persistence on small islands. Surprisingly few empirical studies have explicitly addressed whether species with contrasting traits differ in their SARs; in this respect, there seem to be more studies from fragmented habitats than from true islands .
In this study, we focused on butterflies and moths on true islands. No quantitative analyses have previously been conducted with data from true islands to investigate whether traits are related both to processes of colonization and extinction with respect to island biogeography theoryand to niche theory specific species responses to area and isolation.
Journal of Animal Ecology Gleason HA On the relation between species and area. May RM Patterns of species abundance and diversity.
Preston FW Time and space and the variation of species. Preston FW The canonical distribution of commonness and rarity: Svensk Botanisk Tidsskrift Ecology Letters 16 Suppl: Journal of Ecology Journal of Theoretical Biology Biodiversity and Conservation Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, vol. Griffin DA Diversity theories.
Connor and McCoy also reviews the evidence linking species-area relationships to biological and ecological explanations, but the authors focus on the statistical validity of attempts to use the form and parameters of species-area curves to discern ecological causality.
Rosenzweig explores in detail several examples of species-area curves and uses them to discuss the many factors that influence the shape of these curves, while Drakare, et al. Because of the variety of research goals inherent in studies of species-area relationships, sampling and analytical methods, as well as definitions of what constitutes a species-area relationship, often vary among studies. Scheiner defines six types of species-area curves that differ in the spatial arrangement of samples, whether larger samples are constructed in a spatially explicit fashion from adjacent smaller samples, and whether means or single values are used for a given spatial scale.
Species-Area Relationships Are Controlled by Species Traits
The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship. Which function describes the species-area relationship best? A review and empirical evaluation. Journal of Biogeography The author recognizes only nested, spatially explicit, and island curves as true species-area relationships because each point in the curve is internally contiguous. Drakare, Stina, Jack J.